The Six Day War of 1967 was fought between Israel and an Arab Coalition (including Jordan, Syria, Egypt, and Iraq). Israel used the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiron, the massing of Egyptian tanks against the Israeli border, the Syrian shelling of Galilee fishermen, and the Syrian plan to divert drinking water from Israel as reasons for launching their attack.
Operation Focus was the Israeli air campaign, which easily wiped out the air forces of the entire Arab Coalition. Following Operation Focus was a charge eastward into Jordan's West Bank. The Israelis quickly captured the eastern part of the holy city of Jerusalem. At the same time, the IDF charged southwards towards Egypt's Sinai peninsula and Gaza Strip. The IDF, led by future prime minister Ariel Sharon, quickly dispatched the Egyptian army and conquered the entire Sinai region. On the Syrian Front, the Israelis charged up the Syrian Golan Heights on Day 5 of the Six Day War and took them.
All four of these regions are still in dispute. Israel returned Gaza and Sinai, but not the Golan Heights or the West Bank.
For more information, read:
Military History Magazine (June 2002): Conquering the Golan Heights
Dictionary of Battles by David ChandlerMilitary History Podcast is sponsored by Armchair General Magazine