Nader Shah was the founder of the Afsharid Dynasty of Persia, lasting from 1736 to 1747. During this time, this "second Alexander" returned Persia to its Sassanid-era borders. After pushing the anti-Safavid Afghan invaders out of Persia, Nader invaded Afghanistan and took the cities of Kabul, Kandahar, and Lahore. In the western theater, Nader Shah gained many cities from Ottoman Mesopotamia, including Najaf, Karbala, and Basra. However, he was stopped at the walls of Baghdad. In the Eastern Theater, Nader Shah defeated the Mughals decisively at the Battle of Karnal. From here, he continued on into Delhi, where he indirectly killed 30,000 civilians and took many crown jewels, including the Peacock Throne (valued at $1 billion dollars now) and two 180+ carat diamonds.
Nader Shah also conquered Oman and Bahrain. He founded the modern Persian Navy. He even tried to reconcile Shiite Islam and Sunni Islam but failed. Upon his assassination in 1747, the Persian Empire descended, once again, into chaos.
For more information, read: http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-225443 http://www.iranchamber.com/history/afsharids/afsharids.php http://irane-man.tripod.com/NaderShah.html Military History Podcast is sponsored by Armchair General Magazine