MinuteEarth

Oct 16 2020 3 mins 4.8k

Science and stories about our awesome planet-- in just a few minutes!





Can Pregnancy Tests Help Beat The Pandemic?
Oct 16 2020 3 mins  
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ The lab-on-a-stick that lets us know if we’re pregnant is a genius bit of technology that can be used to quickly determine everything from whether there are nuts in our chocolate to whether we have COVID. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Early Pregnancy Test: A simple lateral flow assay that tests for the presence of a particular hormone in urine. Lateral Flow Assay: Simple tests in which a liquid sample is run along the surface of a pad using capillary action and colored antibodies to show a visual positive or negative result. Capillary Action: The movement of water-based liquids within small tubes due to the forces of cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension. Antibody: A blood protein produced by the immune system in response to a particular antigen. Antigen: A foreign substance which produces an immune response within the body. False positive: A result produced that falsely indicates a particular antigen is present. False negative: A result produced that falsely indicates that a particular antigen is absent. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Koczula, K., and Gallotta, A. (2016) Lateral Flow Assays. Essays in Biochemistry, 60: 111-120. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986465/. Seo, K., Holt, P., Stone, H. and Gast, R. (2003). Simple and rapid methods for detecting Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 87: 139-144. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12927716/. Bishop, J., Hsieh, H., Gasperino, D., and Weigl, B. (2019). (1997). Sensitivity enhancement in lateral flow assays: a systems perspective. Lab On A Chip, 19: 2486-2499. Retrieved from: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/lc/c9lc00104b#!divAbstract. O’Farrell, B. (2008). Evolution in Lateral Flow–Based Immunoassay Systems. Nature Public Health Emergency Collection. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119943/ Collins, F. (2020). Charting a Rapid Course Toward Better COVID-19 Tests and Treatments. NIH Director’s Blog. Retrieved from: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/08/06/charting-a-rapid-course-toward-better-covid-19-tests-and-treatments/ Shen, A. Personal Communication (2020). Director, Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. https://groups.oist.jp/mbnu

Why Hardwoods Are The Softest Woods
Oct 09 2020 4 mins  
Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula! Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit. SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* Julián Gustavo Gómez | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Ever Salazar | Audio Editing Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure–A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-454-3.00001-9 Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156. Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3_1 Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). https://risdmuseum.org/art-design/projects-publications/articles/wood-middle-ages Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111–136 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-017-0644-9 Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, https://www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/hardwood-anatomy/. Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018. Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523. Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359. Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004. Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008) Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science & Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480270802607947 Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr190/chapter_03.pdf WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, https://www.woodmagazine.com/wood-supplies/wood-species/what-is-the-worlds-hardest-wood.


The Miscommunication Game (Ft. 15 other channels!)
Sep 24 2020 15 mins  
Use the discount code “MINUTEEARTH” to get 10% off your game of Telestrations at https://theop.games/minuteearth Here’s what happened when more than a dozen of our favorite channels got together to blindly make a video with one another. 0:00 - Intro 1:14 - Kate & Ever | MinuteEarth 1:49 - Henry | MinuteEarth | MinutePhysics https://youtube.com/MinutePhysics 2:30 - Sarah | MinuteEarth 3:11 - Arcadi | MinuteEarth | Gastrofísica https://youtube.com/tippetopphysics 3:56 - Grant | 3Blue1Brown https://youtube.com/3blue1brown 4:42 - Dianna | Physics Girl https://youtube.com/PhysicsGirl 5:22 - Osmosis https://youtube.com/Osmosis 6:03 - Tom Scott https://youtube.com/TomScottGo 6:40 - Scishow https://youtube.com/SciShow 7:17 - Mithuna | Looking Glass Universe https://youtube.com/LookingGlassUniverse 7:47 - Stephen | Welch Labs https://youtube.com/WelchLabsVideo 8:17 - Vanessa | BrainCraft https://youtube.com/BrainCraftVideo 8:48 - Patch | TierZoo https://youtube.com/TierZoo 9:21 - Jabril | Jabrils https://youtube.com/Jabrils 10:03 - Danielle | Animalogic https://youtube.com/Animalogic 10:45 - Joe | It's Okay to be Smart https://youtube.com/itsokaytobesmart 11:17 - About Telestrations 11:52 - Our Favorite Reactions 14:49 - Outro SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman and Ever Salazar | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

How To Hear Halfway Around The World
Sep 17 2020 3 mins  
Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org Sounds in the ocean can travel more than 10,000 miles - that's halfway around the world! Here's how. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Refraction: the bending of a sound wave based on changes in the wave's speed SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info OUR STAFF ************ Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Heaney, K.D., Kuperman, W.A., and McDonald, B. E. (1960). Perth-Bermuda sound propagation: Adiabatic mode interpretation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90, 2586–2594, 1991. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.402062 Munk, W.H, Spindel, R.C., Baggeroer, A., Birdsall, T. G. (1994). The Heard Island Feasibility Test, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2330–2342. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.410105 Payne, R. S., and Webb, D. (1971). Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 188:110–141. https://www.thecre.com/sefReports/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Payne-R.-Webb-D.-1971.-Orientation.pdf Shockley, R. C., Northrop, J., Hansen, P. G. Hartdegen, C. (1982) SOFAR propagation paths from Australia to Bermuda: Comparision of signal speed algorithms and experiments, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 51–60. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.387250

Why You’re More Likely To Die In Winter
Sep 10 2020 2 mins  
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 There’s a huge seasonal difference in death rates that is propelled by a variety of factors including pathogen behavior and anatomical response to temperature changes. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Crude Death Rate: The number of people in a population of a 1,000 who die every year. The 2020 rate for the entire world is roughly 8. If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: CGP Grey takes you through the first half of Death's day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMNGEY8OZqo SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: David Goldenberg | Script Writer Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator Irene Crisologo | Illustrator Ever Salazar | Animator and Director Nathaniel Schroeder | Music Feedback on drafts by: Julián Gustavo Gómez, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Robbie M Parks, James E Bennett, Kyle J Foreman, Ralf Toumi, Majid Ezzati (2018). National and regional seasonal dynamics of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA from 1980 to 2016. eLife 2018;7:e35500. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/35500. Roland Rau, Christina Bohk-Ewald, Magdalena M. Muszyńska, James W. Vaupel (2017). Seasonality of Causes of Death. Chapter in: Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-64820-0_9. Dimitrios Seretakis; Pagona Lagiou, MD; Loren Lipworth, DSc; et al (1997). Changing Seasonality of Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA, 278(12):1012-1014. Retrieved from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/418241. W. R. Keatinge (2002) Winter mortality and its causes, International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 61:4, 292-299. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3402/ijch.v61i4.17477 Average Daily Number of Deaths,* by Month — United States, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6826a5.htm.

The World's Most Expensive Shrimp ($10k)
Aug 25 2020 3 mins  
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Some aquarium hobbyists will pay $10,000 or more for a single shrimp because of the rarity of their colors or patterns. LEARN MORE ************** To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Chromatophores: pigment-containing cells in the deeper layers of the skin of animals like shrimp Restricted availability theory: a commodity is available or perceived to be available only for certain individuals Reactance theory: unavailability of a commodity is perceived as a threat to an individual’s freedom to posses that commodity, making it more desirable. Scarcity heuristic: a mental shortcut that places value on items based on how easy it is to miss out on them. If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Check out this Taiwanese news broadcast about fancy shrimp breeding: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxjUEhryDEA SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH ************************** If you like what we do, you can help us!: - Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth - Share this video with your friends and family - Leave us a comment (we read them!) CREDITS ********* This video was produced by: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation Nathaniel Schroeder | Music Feedback on drafts by: David Goldenberg, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC https://neptunestudios.info Henry Reich | Executive Producer David Goldenberg | Production Manager Melissa Hayes | Business & Legal Counsel Kate Yoshida | Chief Editor Ever Salazar | Creative Director Julián Gustavo Gómez | Community Manager OTHER CREDITS ***************** White Painted (Kai Bai) Shrimp photo by Demin Wong Blue Bolt Shrimp photo by Jeffrey Kelley OUR LINKS ************ Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth Website | https://minuteearth.com Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176 REFERENCES ************** Bauer, R. T. "Color patterns of the shrimps Heptacarpus pictus and H. paludicola (Caridea: Hippolytidae)." Marine Biology 64.2 (1981): 141-152. John, Maria, et al. "The preference for scarcity: A developmental and comparative perspective." Psychology & Marketing 35.8 (2018): 603-615. Lukhaup, Chris. “Freshwater Shrimps: The next Generation.” Practical Fishkeeping, 14 May 2019, www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/features/freshwater-shrimps-the-next-generation/. Lynn, Michael. "The psychology of unavailability: Explaining scarcity and cost effects on value." Basic and Applied Social Psychology 13.1 (1992): 3-7. Verhallen, Theo MM, and Henry SJ Robben. "Unavailability and the evaluation of goods." KYKLOS-BERNE- 48 (1995): 369-369.

Why Sewers Around the World Keep Overflowing
Aug 25 2020 3 mins  
Find out more about our sewers from the In Deep podcast at https://www.indeep.org. The old combined sewer systems of many major cities are no match for modern storms and impermeable surfaces. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Combined Sewer System: Sewers designed to collect domestic sewage and storm runoff in the same wastewater pipe. Wastewater Treatment Plant: A facility that filters and cleans wastewater before sending it into nearby waterways. Combined Sewer Overflow: When the wastewater in a combined sewer system exceeds a certain limit, it bypasses the wastewater treatment plant and goes directly into nearby waterways. Extreme Rainfall: Storms that cause the wettest days of the year in a particular geographic area. Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm. Deep Tunnel Project: A $3 billion civil engineering megaproject designed to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Narrator, and Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Kate Yoshida, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Tibbets, J. (2005). Combined Sewer Systems: Down, Dirty, and Out of Date. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(7): A464–A467. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257666/. Olds HT, Corsi SR, Dila DK, Halmo KM, Bootsma MJ, McLellan SL. (2018). High levels of sewage contamination released from urban areas after storm events: A quantitative survey with sewage specific bacterial indicators. PLoS Med. 15(7): e1002614. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002614. Walsh, J., D. Wuebbles, K. Hayhoe, J. Kossin, K. Kunkel, G. Stephens, P. Thorne, R. Vose, M. Wehner, J. Willis, D. Anderson, S. Doney, R. Feely, P. Hennon, V. Kharin, T. Knutson, F. Landerer, T. Lenton, J. Kennedy, and R. Somerville. (2014) Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 19-67. Retrieved from: https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/our-changing-climate/heavy-downpours-increasing Melosi, Martin. (2000). The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Johns Hopkins University Press. Grabar, Henry. (2019). Tunnel Vision. Slate. Retrieved from: https://slate.com/business/2019/01/chicagos-deep-tunnel-is-it-the-solution-to-urban-flooding-or-a-cautionary-tale.html

How To Go Extinct
Aug 25 2020 9 mins  
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/Nkq830qWCSh Our new evolution simulator reveals that extinction often happens when conditions change quickly. Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/evolution-simulator/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: The moment when the last individual of a particular species dies. Interspecific Competition: When individuals of different species compete for the same resources or habitats. Thylacine: The so-called Tasmanian Tiger, it is one of the largest predatory marsupials; the last known individual was captured in 1933. Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm. Holocene Extinction: The so-called sixth mass extinction, mostly involving larger animals, that started at the end of the last Ice Age, mostly due to human activity. Extinction rates during this time are 100-1000 times higher than usual. Anagenesis: The gradual evolution of a species over time. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman and Jasper Palfree Video Director: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida and Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Audio Effect: Scratch Speed by Freesound.org user Racoonanimator ___________________________________________ References: Cahill, A., Aiello-Lammens, M., M. Caitlin Fisher-Reid, Xia Hua, Caitlin J. Karanewsky, Hae Yeong Ryu, Gena C. Sbeglia, Fabrizio Spagnolo, John B. Waldron, Omar Warsi and John J. Wiens (2013). How does climate change cause extinction? Proceedings of the Royal Society. 280 (1750). Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2012.1890. Marcel Cardillo, Georgina M. Mace, Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Wes Sechrest, C. David L. Orme, Andy Purvis (2005). Multiple Causes of High Extinction Risk in Large Mammal Species. Science. 309(5738). Retrieved from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5738/1239.abstract. Craig Loehle, Willis Eschenbach (2011). Historical bird and terrestrial mammal extinction rates and causes. Diversity and Distributions, 18(1), 84-91. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00856.x Johnson, CN, Wroe, S. (2003). Causes of Extinction of Vertebrates during the Holocene of Mainland Australia: Arrival of the Dingo, or Human Impact?. The Holocene. 13 (6): 941–948. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1191/0959683603hl682fa Seth M. Rudman, Dolph Schluter. (2016).Ecological Impacts of Reverse Speciation in Threespine Stickleback. Current Biology, 26(4), 490-495. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216000403.

Did Disney Doom Hyenas?
Jul 23 2020 4 mins  
Get your NEW MinuteEarth merch! Sticker packs and T-shirts on sale at https://dftba.com/minuteearth. Throughout history and around the world, most people dislike hyenas. But why? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Director, Narrator, and Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hyena photo by Michael Shehan Obeysekera https://www.flickr.com/photos/mshehan/6846999112 Another hyena photo by Eric Kilby https://www.flickr.com/photos/ekilby/50051179628 ___________________________________________ References: Batt, S. (2009). Human attitudes towards animals in relation to species similarity to humans: a multivariate approach. Bioscience Horizons 2: 180-190. https://academic.oup.com/biohorizons/article/2/2/180/254452 Glickman, S.E. (1995). The spotted hyena from Aristotle to the Lion King: reputation is everything. Social Research 62(3): 501+. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40971108 Gottlieb, A. (1989). Hyenas and heteroglossia: myth and ritual among the Beng of Côte d'Ivoire. American Ethnologist 16(3): 487. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1525/ae.1989.16.3.02a00050 Jacobs, M.H. Why do we like or dislike animals? (2009). Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14 (1): 1-11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40791025_Why_Do_We_Like_or_Dislike_Animals Prokop, P., and Randler, C. (2018). “Biological predispositions and individual differences in human attitudes toward animals,” in Ethnozoology: Animals in our Lives, eds R. R. N. Alves and A. P. D. de Albuquerque (Cambridge, MA: Academic Press), 447–466. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128099131000235 Woods, B. (2000). Beauty and the beast: Preferences for animals in Australia. Journal of Tourism Studies 11 (2): 25–35. https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/24139/1/24139_Woods_2000.pdf

Will Gas Stations Survive?
Jul 01 2020 2 mins  
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2z08OS6 Although it’s not likely to happen soon, someday gas stations may be replaced by (or turn into) another type of fueling station, because no fuel or mode of transportation is forever. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Gas station - a roadside establishment that sells gasoline, and diesel (AKA petrol station, service station, garage, filling station) Convenience store - a store selling a limited range of household goods and groceries, often functioning simultaneously as a gas station Stable - a building for keeping horses Livery stable - a building where horse owners can/could pay a fee to have their horses fed and kept ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Veritasium: World’s First Car! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04 Bertha Benz: The Journey That Changed Everything (short film by Mercedes Benz) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsGrFYD5Nfs Timeline of US gas station history - https://www.convenience.org/Topics/Fuels/The-History-of-Fuels-Retailing _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: American Oil & Gas Historical Society. “First Gas Pump and Service Station.” https://aoghs.org/transportation/first-gas-pump-and-service-stations Accessed January 2020. Beckman, T. N. 2011. A brief history of the gasoline service station. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing. Chicago. http://bit.ly/39WaadQ Caldeira, K. Personal communication February 2020. Coren, M.J. 18 May 2019. "Researchers have no idea when electric cars are going to take over." https://qz.com/1620614/electric-car-forecasts-are-all-over-the-map/ Henderson, W., & Benjamin, S. 1994. Gas Stations: Landmarks of the American Roadside. Motorbooks International. Osceola. IEA. 2019. "Global EV Outlook 2019." Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2019 Jakle, J. A., & Sculle, K. A. 1994. The gas station in America. JHU Press. Kah, M. December 2019. Electric vehicle penetration and its impact on global oil demand: a survey of 2019 forecast trends. https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/file-uploads/EV-SurveyReport-CGEP_Report_121019_0.pdf / http://bit.ly/2TRKZUa Kane, M. 2 Feb 2020. "Global EV Sales For 2019 Now In: Tesla Model 3 Totally Dominated." https://insideevs.com/news/396177/global-ev-sales-december-2019/ McKerracher, C. et al. 2019. Electric Vehicle Outlook 2019. https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook/#toc-viewreport Muller, D. 23 Nov 2017. "World’s First Car!" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04 Sachs, W. 1992. For love of the automobile: Looking back into the history of our desires. Univ of California Press. https://go.aws/33lbPHe US DOE. "U.S. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales by Model.” https://afdc.energy.gov/data/10567


$100,000 For Everyone (*If We Aren’t Too Late)
Jun 24 2020 2 mins  
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/3dSVdur We’ll each have at least $100,000 more in our piggy banks, on average, if we stop climate change than if we don’t. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: climate change damages, greenhouse gas emissions, climate mitigation ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Burke M, WM Davis, NS Diffenaugh. 2018. Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets Nature 557: 549-553. Hsiang S, R Kopp, A Jina, J Rising, M Delgado, S Mohan, DJ Rasmussen, R Muir-Wood, P Wilson, M Oppenheimer, K Larsen, T Houser. 2017. Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States. Science 356, 1362-1369 International Monetary Fund. 2017. The Effects of Weather Shocks on Economic Activity: How Can Low-income Countries Cope? World Economic Outlook Chapter 3, 117-183. Kahn, ME, K Mohaddes, RNC Ng, M Hashem Pesaran, M Raissi, J-C Yang. 2019. Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis, CESifo Working Paper, No. 7738, Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich. Some economists argue that people in the future will be so much richer than people today that we should just let them pay to fix climate change. There’s no guarantee, however, that future people will be richer (especially if we let climate change happen), and other economists argue that even if future people are richer, it’s not ok to leave them with a ruined planet. So, we’ve emphasized why it would be beneficial to slow climate change now.

YouTube Is Misleading You. Help Us Make It Better.
Jun 18 2020 3 mins  
Join us on Patreon at http://patreon.com/MinuteEarth As we see a rise in misinformation on YouTube, educational channels like MinuteEarth need your support today more than ever. Thanks also to our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Misinformation: false information that is spread, regardless of intent to mislead Disinformation: deliberately misleading or biased information; manipulated narrative or facts ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Emperor penguin photo by Cristopher Michel https://flic.kr/p/pKneEA Macaroni penguin photo by Liam Quinn https://flic.kr/p/9YG3s2 COX-2 graphics by Cytochrome c https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cyclooxygenase-2.png ___________________________________________ References: Anderson, Janna, and Lee Rainie. "The future of truth and misinformation online." Pew Research Center 19 (2017). “Why Is YouTube Broadcasting Climate Misinformation to Millions?” Avaaz, 16 Jan. 2020, http://secure.avaaz.org/campaign/en/youtube_climate_misinformation/. Del Vicario, Michela, et al. "The spreading of misinformation online." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.3 (2016): 554-559.Iammarino, Nicholas K., and Thomas W. O’Rourke. "The challenge of alternative facts and the rise of misinformation in the digital age: Responsibilities and opportunities for health promotion and education." American journal of health education 49.4 (2018): 201-205. Lewis, Paul. "Fiction is outperforming reality”: How YouTube’s algorithm distorts truth." The Guardian 2 (2018): 2018. Meserole, Chris. "How misinformation spreads on social media—And what to do about it." The Brookings Institution (May 9, 2018), https://www.brookings. edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/05/09/how-misinformation-spreads-on-social-media-and-what-to-do-about-it (2018). O'Connor, Cailin. How Misinformation Spreads-and Why We Trust It. Scientific American, Sept. 2019, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-misinformation-spreads-and-why-we-trust-it/. Roberts, David. YouTube Has a Big Climate Misinformation Problem It Can't Solve. Vox, 26 Jan. 2020, http://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2020/1/26/21068473/youtube-climate-change-misinformation-epistemic-crisis. Syed-Abdul, Shabbir, et al. "Misleading health-related information promoted through video-based social media: anorexia on YouTube." Journal of medical Internet research 15.2 (2013): e30.Williamson, Phil. "Take the time and effort to correct misinformation." Nature 540.7632 (2016): 171-171. Wood, Mike. “How Does Misinformation Spread Online?” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 6 Dec. 2018, http://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/web-mistrust/201812/how-does-misinformation-spread-online. Educational creators featured in this video: Jordan Harrod – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1H1NWNTG2Xi3pt85ykVSHA SciShow – https://www.youtube.com/user/scishow Tom Scott – https://www.youtube.com/user/enyay ASAP Science – https://www.youtube.com/user/AsapSCIENCE ViHart – https://www.youtube.com/user/Vihart DrawCuriosity – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOs_jEnQF2ePJzjJTgRtunA TierZoo – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHsRtomD4twRf5WVHHk-cMw Wannabe Linguist – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkl3U62tqz-4SDxbqjn4G7A Kurzgesagt – https://www.youtube.com/user/Kurzgesagt Sabrina Cruz – https://www.youtube.com/user/NerdyAndQuirky msbeautyphile – https://www.youtube.com/user/msbeautyphile CGP Grey – https://www.youtube.com/user/CGPGrey Hot Mess – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw Jabrils – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQALLeQPoZdZC4JNUboVEUg CrashCourse – https://www.youtube.com/user/crashcourse Tippe Top Physics – https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics

The Best Worst Energy Source
Jun 09 2020 2 mins  
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2X0Nxzv Although coal is such an amazing energy source that we've kept using it despite the harm it causes, today we may be better poised to stop using it than at any previous time in history. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: See How the World’s Most Polluted Air Compares With Your City’s - https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/02/climate/air-pollution-compare-ar-ul.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Co-Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Coady, D. et al. 2015. How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2016/12/31/How-Large-Are-Global-Energy-Subsidies-42940 Farrow, A., Miller, K.A. & Myllyvirta, L. February 2020. Toxic air: The price of fossil fuels. Seoul: Greenpeace Southeast Asia. 44 pp. https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/21b480fa-toxic-air-report-110220.pdf Freese, B. 2016. Coal: A Human History. Basic Books Freese, B. Personal communication, Feb 2020 IEA. 2019. Coal 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/coal-2019 IEA. 2019. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-co2-status-report-2019 Jaffe, E. 17 September 2015. The Enormous Social Cost of Cheap Coal. https://www.citylab.com/environment/2015/09/the-enormous-social-cost-of-cheap-coal/405730/ Ramani, R.V. & Evans, M.A. "Coal Mining." https://www.britannica.com/technology/coal-mining Accessed Dec 2019 Pompeu, N.B. 14 Feb 2019. Air Pollution and the Health Cost of Coal. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/subsidy-watch-blog/air-pollution-and-health-cost-coal Union of Concerned Scientists. 15 July 2006. A Short History of Energy. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/short-history-energy US EIA. "Coal explained: Coal and the environment." https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/coal/coal-and-the-environment.php Accessed Dec 2019 Wikipedia. “Coal.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal Accessed Dec 2019 Wikipedia. “History of coal mining.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coal_mining Accessed Dec 2019 World Coal Association. "Where is coal found?” https://www.worldcoal.org/coal/where-coal-found Accessed Feb 2020 https://ourworldindata.org/uploads/2020/02/Safest-source-of-energy-2048x1942.png https://www.lazard.com/media/451086/lazards-levelized-cost-of-energy-version-130-vf.pdf https://www.irena.org/costs/Power-Generation-Costs/Hydropower

Is There A Better Way To Power Airplanes?
May 28 2020 3 mins  
This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2WDTJ1L It’s hard to replace jet fuel because the alternatives aren’t energetic enough, are too dangerous, or aren’t yet being made at scale. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Jet fuel - a liquid petroleum fuel with high specific energy and energy density, used in airplane jet engines, made of kerosene with a few additives Specific Energy - how much energy something contains per unit mass Energy Density - how much energy something contains per unit volume Synthetic jet fuel - a jet fuel replacement, typically aiming to have lower life cycle environmental impacts than jet fuel (AKA: sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), alternative jet fuel, renewable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel, biojet fuel, sustainable alternative fuel) Kerosene - a petroleum product that is the main component of jet fuel (and old fashioned lanterns) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What you get from a barrel of oil - https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/oil-and-petroleum-products/ Real Engineering: Are Electric Planes Possible? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNvzZfsC13o&feature=youtu.be _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: ATAG. Nov 2017. Beginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Edition 3. https://bit.ly/2AcJLLW Accessed Jan 2020. ATAG. “Producing sustainable aviation fuel” https://bit.ly/3gncnmh Accessed Jan 2020 Burton, Freya. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020 Cey, E., et al. 2019. Energy Education. “Oil formation.” https://bit.ly/3ej8r3Y Accessed Jan 2020 Chuck, C. (Ed.). 2016. Biofuels for aviation: feedstocks, technology and implementation. Academic Press Goldmann, A., et al. 2018. A study on electrofuels in aviation. Energies, 11(2), 392. https://bit.ly/2AfRUis Hileman, J. I., & Stratton, R. W. 2014. Alternative jet fuel feasibility. Transport Policy, 34, 52-62. https://bit.ly/2X8832H IATA. May 2019. “Sustainable Aviation Fuels Fact sheet.” https://bit.ly/2ZO2BDX Accessed Jan 2020 IATA. December 2019. "Fuel Fact Sheet." https://bit.ly/3dcJ0Ry Accessed March 2020 Le Feuvre, P. 18 March 2019. Are aviation biofuels ready for take off? https://bit.ly/2XA5R2T Lehtveer, M., Brynolf, S., & Grahn, M. 2019. What Future for Electrofuels in Transport? Analysis of Cost Competitiveness in Global Climate Mitigation. Environmental science & technology, 53(3), 1690-1697. https://bit.ly/3d96QgX McKinsey. Energy Resources. https://bit.ly/2M7pYzW Accessed December 2019. Monroe Aerospace. 29 April 2019. Why Airplanes Use Kerosene Rather Than Plain Gasoline for Fuel. https://bit.ly/3d8FpnD Searle, S. 15 Nov 2018. Decarbonizing aviation through low-carbon fuels will be beyond difficult. https://bit.ly/2zAN1kc Shaw, R.J. 12 June 2014. "How does a jet engine work?" https://go.nasa.gov/2XOwG3F Accessed Jan 2020 Sindreu, J. 10 Jan 2020. The Promise of Sustainable Aviation Fuel Isn’t for Today. https://on.wsj.com/3gthykv Wikipedia. "Nuclear Powered Aircraft” https://bit.ly/2ZGECGw Accessed Jan 2020. Thanks also to Steve Thorne and Erik Pieh. References for calculations https://bit.ly/3c9Lvmc https://bit.ly/2yC04kS https://bit.ly/2X5OAPV https://bit.ly/2zDqoLT https://bit.ly/3gw1L4n https://bit.ly/2TLZQPo https://bit.ly/2TGOV9B https://bit.ly/2TLG86r https://bit.ly/2ZHdZkN https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=jet+fuel https://www.toyota.com/corolla/features/capacities/1882/1863/1856 https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-much-does-gasoline-weigh.html https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Transatlantic_Fuel_Efficiency_Ranking_20180912.pdf https://www.transtats.bts.gov/Distance.asp?pn=0 https://physics.info/energy-chemical/ https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage https://neutrium.net/properties/specific-energy-and-energy-density-of-fuels/

Why You Can't Build A Clone Army... (Yet)
May 21 2020 3 mins  
Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs. Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism. Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development. Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits. Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development. Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382 Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6 Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696 Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017 Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867 Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435 Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798 Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi114 Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063443 Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.055 Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005 Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. https://doi.org/10.1038/35030301 Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005

Why Wolves Don't Chirp
May 14 2020 4 mins  
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Sounds that animals make can be really different, and it turns out that there's a reason why some species communicate with certain sounds. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: frequency - how often a wave occurs in a certain unit of time Hertz - a unit of frequency (Hz), the number of waves that occus in a second pitch - a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale echolocation - the location of objects by reflected sound refraction - the change in direction of a wave diffraction - the bending of waves around obstacles and the spreading out of waves beyond openings ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arch, V. A. and P. M. Narins. 2008. “Silent” signals: selective forces acting on ultrasonic communication systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Animal Behaviour 76: 1423–1428. https://www.mn.uio.no/cees/english/research/news/events/research/journal-clubs/eef/2008/silent-signals.html Bedard Jr. and T. M. Georges. 2000. Atmospheric Infrasound, Physics Today, 53(3): 32-37. https://psl.noaa.gov/programs/infrasound/atmospheric_infrasound.pdf Ladich F. and H. Winkler. 2017. Acoustic communication in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates,” Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2306–2317. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/220/13/2306.full.pdf Michelsen, A. and O.N. Larsen. 1983. Strategies for acoustic communication in complex environments. In: Neuroethology and Behavioural Physiology (ed Huber, F. and Markl, H.) pp. 321-331 Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-69271-0_23 Narins, P.M., A.S. Stoeger, and C. O'Connell-Rodwell. 2016. Infrasonic and seismic communication in the vertebrates with special emphasis on the Afrotheria: An update and future directions. In Vertebrate Sound Production and Acoustic Communication (ed. R. A. Suthers, W. T. Fitch, R. R. Fay and A. N. Popper), pp. 191-227. Cham: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27721-9_7

Why Do We STILL Use Lead Pipes?!
May 07 2020 4 mins  
Visit https://www.apmreports.org/water to read "Buried Lead". This video was made in partnership with The Water Main. We've known for millennia that lead pipes could make us sick, so why are we still drinking from them? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hard water: water with a high mineral content Soft water: water with a low mineral content ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hernberg, S. (2000) Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(3): 256-249. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/1097-0274%28200009%2938%3A3%3C244%3A%3AAID-AJIM3%3E3.0.CO%3B2-F Hodge, AT. (1981) Vitruvius, lead pipes and lead poisoning. American Journal of Archaeology 85(4): 486–491. https://www.jstor.org/stable/504874 Milton, AL. (1988) Lead and lead poisoning from Antiquity to Modern Times. Ohio Journal of Science 88: 78-84. https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/23252 Rabin, R. (2008) The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes: a Modest Campaign. Public Health 98 (9): 1584–92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2509614/ Troesken W. and Beeson, P. (2003) On the Significance of Lead Water Mains in American Cities: Some Historical Evidence.” In Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Course, ed. Costa Dora L., 127–51. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and NBER. https://www.nber.org/chapters/c9632.pdf

This Atom Can Predict The Future
Apr 30 2020 3 mins  
Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org Many of the bewildering correlations in our world - like that between Beryllium-7 and the Asian monsoon - are a result of huge and unseen forces that tie them together. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monsoon: A seasonal increase in precipitation driven by atmospheric conditions. Hadley Cell: A global scale atmospheric cell driven by air rising near the equator and falling as it flows towards the polls. Ferrel Cell: A secondary atmospheric circulation that collides with the Hadley cell and pushes air back down towards the Earth’s surface. Intertropical Convergence Zone: The narrow zone between the northern and southern Hadley cells where warm air comes together and rises. Tropopause: The boundary area roughly 15 kilometers above the Earth’s surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Radionuclide: Isotopes of atoms that release radiation as they break down. Beryllium-7: A relatively stable radionuclide of the element Beryllium that naturally forms in the tropopause during spallation. Spallation: The process in which a heavier atom loses nuclear particles after being bombarded by cosmic rays. Cosmic Rays: High energy atomic particles that move at near light speed through space. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Terzi, L., Kalinowski, M., Schoeppner, M., and Wotawa, G. (2019). How to predict seasonal weather and monsoons with radionuclide monitoring. Nature. 9: 2729. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39664-7. Köhn‐Reich, L., Bürger, G. (2019). Dynamical prediction of Indian monsoon: Past and present skill. International Journal of Climatology. 38:3574-3581. Retrieved from: https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joc.6039. Delaygue, G., Bekki, S., and Bard, E. (2015) Modelling the stratospheric budget of beryllium isotopes. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 67:1 Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/tellusb.v67.28582. Palukkat, H. (2016) The odds of foretelling rains: Why monsoon prediction is hard, and why it could soon improve. Economic Times. Retrieved from: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-odds-of-foretelling-rains-why-monsoon-prediction-is-hard-and-why-it-could-soon-improve/articleshow/52876823.cms. Kalinowski, M. (2020). Personal Communication. Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.


The Extinction Happening Inside You
Apr 23 2020 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Our modern lifestyle and diet are leading to the extinction of parts of our microbiome, but we can use what we've learned from dealing with nearly-extinct macrobiota, like bald eagles, to understand the consequences and find solutions. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Extinction: the termination of a kind of organism or group of kinds, usually a species Endangered: a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future Microbiome: a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and protists) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body Hunter-gatherer: a member of a culture in which food is obtained by hunting, fishing, and foraging rather than by agriculture or animal husbandry Prevotella: a genus of bacteria most commonly found in the microbiome of people who eat a plant-rich diet DDT: an aromatic organochlorine sometimes used as insecticide banned in the U.S. that tends to accumulate and persist in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates C. diff: (short for Clostridium difficile) a toxin-producing bacterium which can infect the bowel, causing illness with diarrhea and fever, especially in people who have been treated with antibiotics Antibiotics: an antibacterial substance (such as penicillin, cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin) that is used to treat or prevent infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria in or on the body Probiotics: a microorganism that when consumed (as in a food or a dietary supplement) maintains or restores beneficial bacteria to the digestive tract ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Filippo, Carlotta, et al. "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.33 (2010): 14691-14696. Gomez, Andres, et al. "Gut microbiome of coexisting BaAka pygmies and bantu reflects gradients of traditional subsistence patterns." Cell reports 14.9 (2016): 2142-2153. Hand, Timothy W., et al. "Linking the microbiota, chronic disease, and the immune system." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.12 (2016): 831-843. Harmon, K. "Bugs inside: what happens when the microbes that keep us healthy disappear." Sci Amer (2009). Harrison, Christy. “Disappearance of the Human Microbiota: How We May Be Losing Our Oldest Allies.” ASM.org, American Society for Microbiology, 8 Nov. 2019, www.asm.org/Articles/2019/November/Disappearance-of-the-Gut-Microbiota-How-We-May-Be. Henson, Shandelle M., et al. "Predator–prey dynamics of bald eagles and glaucous‐winged gulls at Protection Island, Washington, USA." Ecology and evolution 9.7 (2019): 3850-3867. Jacobson, Rebecca. "Can We Save Our Body’s Ecosystem from Extinction?." PBS Newshour (2014). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/theres-extinction-happening-stomach. Rees, Tobias, and Nils Gilman. Opinion | The Silent Microbiome Crisis. The Washington Post, 26 Feb. 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/26/microbes/. Sonnenburg, Erica D., and Justin L. Sonnenburg. "Starving our microbial self: the deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates." Cell metabolism 20.5 (2014): 779-786. Tito, Raul Y., et al. "Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes." PloS one 7.12 (2012). Trotter, Bill. Seabirds Declining as Eagles in Maine Recover. Bangor Daily News, 6 Aug. 2011, bangordailynews.com/2011/08/05/environment/seabirds-declining-as-eagles-in-maine-recover/. US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Bald eagle recovery plan (southwestern population)." US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1982). Velasquez-Manoff, Moises. "How the Western Diet Has Derailed Our Evolution." Nautilus (2015).

How to Work From Home as a Team
Mar 27 2020 5 mins  
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ We've worked as a team - remotely - for seven years, and we're sharing some of our favorite tips for making it work. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer, Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: We surveyed our team members and put together our favorite specific tools and tips for working from home: Video Conference Tips: -During meetings, mute yourself when you’re not speaking, especially if you’re not using headphones. The noise in the room you’re in or the feedback caused by your speakers audio can make the communication less effective. -Learn how to mute other people in meetings (and don’t take offense when you do get muted). -Figure out tech workarounds for when your wifi inevitably goes on the fritz (call people in, turn off video to reduce wifi strain, etc). File Management Tips: -Establish a naming convention with your team, so that all your shared files are consistent, searchable and organized. All of our projects have two-word codenames and numbers that make it easy to identify them regardless of the final title of the video. When making recordings or video files, we use incremental numbering (e.g. “Audio 1”, “Audio 2”, etc). NEVER use the word “final” or “last” for naming a file! -If everybody is working with a file syncing app like Dropbox, make sure to set appropriate editing rights to your files. You want at least a shared folder that anyone on your team can edit and add stuff to, but some files need to be managed by fewer people to avoid unwanted deletions. For example, we have a folder in which everyone can add/modify/delete files, but only one person is in charge of deleting and cleaning up after everything important has been archived. -If there’s a particular task that is repetitive and can be done by different people, make sure to write down the steps in detail so that nothing is missed or forgotten. Tools For Giving Feedback -Screenshots: In OSX, use command-shift-4 to take a screenshot. On Windows 10, you can use the Windows Ink Workspace right in the task bar, which lets you crop and annotate your screenshot. -CloudApp(www.getcloudapp.com): Captures and shares screenshots (and more) via shareable links -Jing (www.techsmith.com/jing-tool.html): Lets you create screenshots and auto-generates a shareable link for each one. -Epic Pen (epic-pen.com): Great free tool for PCs for drawing on your screen (esp when sharing that screen with someone else) Other Work From Home Tips: -Add things like “time to eat lunch” on your calendar if you need it, or you may end up eating lunch at 3pm. -Keep track of your time! If you don’t keep track of the amount of time you spend working, you might overwork yourself (bad) and still feel like you’re not doing enough (worse). Toggl (www.toggl.com) is a great tool for that. -Consider coworking with a group of (nonwork) friends over Skype or Discord. It can help you get into “work mode” and make you feel a little less lonely while working.

How To Name A Disease (Like COVID-19)
Mar 20 2020 3 mins  
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2 We’ve changed - and standardized - the way diseases get named because the old way was often stigmatizing and confusing. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coronaviruses (CoV): a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as COVID-19. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): an infectious disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and named a pandemic in 2020. 2009 H1N1 Flu: a pandemic disease that emerged in 2009 caused by the H1N1)pdm09 virus, which was different from any other influenza strain circulating at the time. World Health Organization (WHO): an organization that directs and coordinates international health within the United Nations system. 1918 Flu: often referred to as the “Spanish flu,” the 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history and caused by an H1N1 virus. There are competing theories for its place of origin, but public health experts agree it did not actually originate in Spain. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first named “gay-related immunodeficiency disease (GRID),” despite the fact anyone, regardless of sexuality, is susceptible. Stigma: a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person. Pandemic: the worldwide spread of a new disease. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn more about social stigma associated with COVID-19: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma-guide.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Writer and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ballantyne, C. "Will Egypt’s plans to kill pigs protect it from swine—sorry, H1N1 flu." Sci Am News Blog https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/will-egypts-plans-to-kill-pigs-prot-2009-05-01/ (2009). World Health Organization. "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic." http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (2009). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The 2009 H1N1 pandemic: summary highlights, April 2009-April 2010." Official Online Article Published by the Centers for Disease Control 4 https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm (2010). Selyukh, A. "Pork industry still reeling from swine flu.” ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/Business/pork-industry-reeling-swine-flu/story?id=8840004 (2009). World Health Organization. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it" https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (2020). World Health Organization. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/163636/WHO_HSE_FOS_15.1_eng.pdf?sequence=1 (2015).

Why Don't More Animals Eat Wood?
Mar 09 2020 3 mins  
Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/ Wood is abundant and full of energy, but outside of some insects, almost no animals eat it because the stuff it's made of is hard to break down. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Xylophagy: the eating of wood Lignin: a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and help make wood rigid. Cellulose: a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers, which is the main constituent of plant cell walls. Lignin oxidation: a depolymerization method to break bonds in lignin molecules such as ether or carbon–carbon bonds by applying an oxidant such as oxygen. Depolymerization: the process of breaking down a polymer, such as lignin, into simpler monomers Trichonympha agilis: a specialized protist that lives in the hindguts of many termite species that breaks down the cellulose in the wood they eat and may contribute to the lignin oxidation process. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about the fungi that first unlocked the secrets of breaking down lignin: https://www.energy.gov/science/articles/behind-scenes-how-fungi-make-nutrients-available-world _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "Rampant host switching shaped the termite gut microbiome." Current biology 28.4 (2018): 649-654. Martin, Michael M. "Cellulose digestion in insects." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 75.3 (1983): 313-324.Mathews, Stephanie L., et al. "Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste." Royal Society open science 6.3 (2019): 180748. Chaney, William Reynolds. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs?. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2003. de Gonzalo, Gonzalo, et al. "Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation." Journal of Biotechnology 236 (2016): 110-119. Hosokawa, Takahiro, et al. "Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria." PLoS biology 4.10 (2006). Novaes, Evandro, et al. "Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees." Plant Physiology 154.2 (2010): 555-561. Vega, Fernando E., and Richard W. Hofstetter, eds. Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Academic Press, 2014. McNab, Brian Keith. The physiological ecology of vertebrates: a view from energetics. Cornell University Press, 2002. Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 32.2 (2014): 406-421. Morgenstern, I., Klopman, S., & Hibbett, D. S. (2008). Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 66(3), 243–257. Suman, S. K., Dhawaria, M., Tripathi, D., Raturi, V., Adhikari, D. K., & Kanaujia, P. K. (2016). Investigation of lignin biodegradation by Trabulsiella sp. isolated from termite gut. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 112, 12–17. Janusz, G., Pawlik, A., Sulej, J., Świderska-Burek, U., Jarosz-Wilkołazka, A., & Paszczyński, A. (2017). Lignin degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41(6), 941–962. Ayuso-Fernández, Iván, Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas, and Angel T. Martínez. "Evolutionary convergence in lignin-degrading enzymes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115.25 (2018): 6428-6433. Ruiz-Dueñas, F. J., & Martínez, Á. T. (2009). Microbial degradation of lignin: how a bulky recalcitrant polymer is efficiently recycled in nature and how we can take advantage of this. Microbial Biotechnology, 2(2), 164–177. Hibbing, Michael E., et al. "Bacterial competition: surviving and thriving in the microbial jungle." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.1 (2010): 15-25.

Where Does One Ocean End And Another Begin?
Feb 25 2020 3 mins  
Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/ Earth's ocean water is continuous. How can we divide it into sections that are more useful? Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: IHO: International Hydrographic Organization ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: We had fun playing with (and transitioning between) different map projections in this video, and we came across this great - and mesmerizing! - website: https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3711652 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Antonello, A. (2018). The Southern Ocean. In Armitage D. (Ed.), Oceanic Histories (296-318). Cambridge University Press.Candido, M. (2011). South Atlantic. In Burnard, T. (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, Oxford University Press. Caspers, H. (1965). Van Mieghem, J. and Van Oye, P (Eds), Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers. Lewis, M.W. (1999). “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89 (2), 188-214. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00213.x International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953): Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization., Bremerhaven. https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/29772/International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (2002): Limits of Oceans and Seas , International Hydrographic Organization (DRAFT), Monaco.

How This River Made Chimps Violent
Feb 12 2020 2 mins  
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan plus 1 additional month free. When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives. Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species. Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically. Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos. Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos. Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo. Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume. G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co ___________________________________________ References: Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128. Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/. Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139. Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.

The Fastest-Growing Plant In The World
Jan 31 2020 2 mins  
Get your first audiobook and two Audible Originals for free when you try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/minuteearth or text “minuteearth” to 500-500! Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/ Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215. Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382. Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654. Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505. Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716. Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50. Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016). Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000). Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446. Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of fibre and parenchyma cell walls during early stages of culm development in Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of botany 95.4 (2005): 619-629. Lybeer, Bieke, et al. "Lignification and cell wall thickening in nodes of Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens and Phyllostachys nigra." Annals of botany 97.4 (2006): 529-539. Tsuyama, Taku, et al. "Lignification in developing culms of bamboo Sinobambusa tootsik." Journal of Wood Science 63.6 (2017): 551-559. Gibert, Anaïs, et al. "On the link between functional traits and growth rate: meta‐analysis shows effects change with plant size, as predicted." Journal of Ecology 104.5 (2016): 1488-1503.

How To Turn Poop Into Power
Jan 09 2020 3 mins  
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth and use code MINUTEEARTH to get 70% off a 3 year plan and an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225. Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009). Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767. Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203. “RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1. “Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.


You Have More Bones Than You Think
Dec 30 2019 2 mins  
Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts.Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone.Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles.Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint. Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408.Vineet K. Sarin Gregory M. Erickson Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O. Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/. Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm.Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com

Why It’s HARD To Bring A New Apple To Market
Dec 19 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10. Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320. Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B) Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005 Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.

Nobody Really Knows What A Concussion Is
Dec 13 2019 3 mins  
Go to curiositystream.com/minute to get a free month trial with CuriosityStream and get a subscription to Nebula bundled in for free! Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes)Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injurySubdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brainCerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294 Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/ Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/ Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/ Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803 Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html

The Great Acceleration
Dec 06 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ We’re in the middle of a rapid, unprecedented, and world-changing increase in the intensity and scale of human activity on this planet. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: The Great Acceleration - the dramatic increase in human activity, largely since 1950, that is evident across a variety of socio-economic and biophysical measures, and that has made humans into a planetary scale forceThe Anthropocene - our current geological epoch (contested), beginning when humans first had significant impact on Earth's geology and ecosystemsHockey stick graph - typically refers to the Mann et al 1999 graph of Earth’s temperature, but can also refer to any trend that's roughly constant for a long duration and then has a drastic upwards shift ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Welcome to the Anthropocene film - https://vimeo.com/39048998Animated map of last 200,000 years of human population - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OEThe history of emissions and the Great Acceleration - https://skepticalscience.com/EmmissionsAcceleration.html The Hockey Stick Controversy - https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/the-hockey-stick-the-most-controversial-chart-in-science-explained/275753/ An argument for 'why growth can’t be green’ - https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant-be-green/# Can we stabilize Earth, or are we going to cross planetary thresholds? - www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810141115 An attainable global vision for conservation and human well-being - https://www.nature.org/content/dam/tnc/nature/en/documents/TNC_AnAttainableGlobalVision_Frontiers.pdf _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Director and Illustrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hockey stick graph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_comp_61-90.pdf by Klaus Bittermann. Used with permission.Copper graph based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_copper#/media/File:Copper_-_world_production_trend.svg Life expectancy graph: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy CO2 graph: https://rateofchange.substack.com/p/the-rate-of-change-july-15-2019 Girl receiving oral polio vaccine: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/8190819087 No changes were made. ___________________________________________ References: Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2014. Introducing the scientific consensus on maintaining humanity’s life support systems in the 21st century: Information for policy makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 78-109. http://bit.ly/34rguHzIGPB. 2015. Great Acceleration. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html Accessed Aug 2019.Hellmann, J. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Mann, M. E., et al. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759-762. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/1999GL900070. McNeill, J.R. Oct 2019. Personal communication. McNeill, J. R. 2001. Something new under the sun: An environmental history of the twentieth-century world (the global century series). WW Norton & Company.Roser, M. 2019. Life Expectancy. Our World In Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy Accessed Sept 2019.Phillipon, D. Aug 2019. Personal communication. Polasky, S. Sept 2019. Personal communication.Steffen, W. et al. 2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the great acceleration. The Anthropocene Review, 2(1), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2053019614564785Thompson et al. 2009. Our plastic age. 364. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054

How Many Zebras Are In This Photo?
Dec 03 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ New technology has revolutionized how we study wild animals, but it has also bogged down scientists with data...luckily, there's an *intelligent* solution. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Deep learning: a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence that can learning from data that is unstructured or unlabeled ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Take a look at the Snapshot Serengeti colletion and try your hand at classifying species, counting animals, and determining behaviors: https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/snapshot-serengeti Learn about the whale shark project and report your sightings: https://www.whaleshark.org/Explore underwater recordings of humpback whales and make your own discoveries: https://patternradio.withgoogle.com/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor, Video Director and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Image Credits: All the photos of the savannah by the SnapshotSerengeti Projecthttps://snapshotserengeti.org Sogod Bay Whale Shark video by Miguel Hilariohttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=husPSPJv80o ___________________________________________ References: Duporge I, Isupova O, and Reece S (2019, April 4) Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning to Detect and Monitor Elephants. https://blog.hexagongeospatial.com/using-satellite-imagery-and-machine-learning-to-detect-and-monitor-elephants/ Norouzzadeh MS, Nguyen A, Kosmala M, Swanson A, Palmer MS, Packer C, and Clune J (2018). Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in camera-trap images with deep learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (25): E5716-E5725. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/37298550/6016780.pdf?sequence=1 Packer C, personal communication (2019, September 12).Swanson AB, Kosmala M, Lintott CJ, Simpson RJ, Smith A, Packer C (2015) Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna. Scientific Data 2: 150026. https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201526Wildbook for Whale Sharks. https://www.whaleshark.org/

The iPhone: A Model for Fighting Climate Change?
Nov 25 2019 2 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The way smartphones made many devices nonessential is a model for a new way to think about improving energy efficiency. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Dematerialization - using less (or no) material to deliver the same serviceEnergy conservation - using less energy by adjusting behavior (turning down your heat)Energy efficiency - using less energy by using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function (insulating your house to keep warm while using less energy)Energy intensity - energy consumption per unit of GDP (reduced by increasing energy efficiency)Energy services - the useful functions you're able to perform by using energy (what we refer to as ‘function’) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Phones are great for the environment https://www.wired.com/story/iphone-environment-consumption/ Nope, phones are bad for the environment https://theconversation.com/how-smartphones-are-heating-up-the-planet-92793 Amory Lovins on ‘integrative design’ (watch the video abstract) - https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta The US would use 85% more energy if it weren’t for efficiency efforts since the 1970s https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/energy-environment/308170-cheap-clean-and-easily-accessible-an-energy-resource US energy intensity has halved since 1970 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=10191 This chart shows just how much energy the US is wasting https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/05/visualizing-u-s-energy-consumption-in-one-chart _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Belkhir, L., & Elmeligi, A. 2018. Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 448-463. Bento, N. 2016. Calling for change? Innovation, diffusion, and the energy impacts of global mobile telephony. Energy Research & Social Science, 21, 84-100. Cullen, J. M., Allwood, J. M., & Borgstein, E. H. 2011. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?. Environmental science & technology, 45(4), 1711-1718. Fell, M. J. 2017. Energy services: A conceptual review. Energy research & social science, 27, 129-140. Grubler, A., et al. 2018. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nature Energy, 3(6), 515. Lovins, A. B. 2018. How big is the energy efficiency resource?. Environmental Research Letters, 13(9), 090401. Popovich, N. March 8, 2019. America’s Light Bulb Revolution. Suckling, J., & Lee, J. 2015. Redefining scope: the true environmental impact of smartphones?. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20(8), 1181-1196. Visitor’s Guide. August 2007. Rocky Mountain Institute.

The Best Dragon (According To Science)
Nov 04 2019 4 mins  
We ranked dragons based on how biologically and evolutionarily plausible they are. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Tetrapods: four-limbed (with a few exceptions, such as snakes which have vestigial limbs) animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: What Happened to Smaug's Other Legs? 'Hobbit' FX Expert Explains http://www.mtv.com/news/1719502/smaug-hobbit-fx-explained/ How to fly your dragon, Journal of Physics Special topics https://journals.le.ac.uk/ojs1/index.php/pst/article/view/870/802 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Tennekes, H. (2009). The simple science of flight: from insects to jumbo jets. MIT press.Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I., & Furuta, T. (1985). Flight mechanics of a dragonfly. Journal of experimental biology, 116(1), 79-107.Habib, M. (2013). Constraining the air giants: limits on size in flying animals as an example of constraint-based biomechanical theories of form. Biological Theory, 8(3), 245-252.

How Much Air Can A Tree Hold? #TeamTrees
Oct 25 2019 1 mins  
🌲🌲🌲 Go to https://teamtrees.org 🌲🌲🌲 Let's plant some trees! #TeamTrees Trees can take an astounding amount of carbon out of the air, which is good, because we need to do that times a trillion. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: carbon: element that makes up half of tree wood by weight ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexreich) and Peter Reich Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Le Quéré, C et al. Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194, 2018 JF Bastin, JF et al.The global tree restoration potential. Science 365 (6448), 76-79 Pillsbury NH; ML Kirkley. 1984. Equations for total, wood, and saw-log volume for thirteen California hardwoods. Res. Note PNW-RN-414. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p B. W. Griscom et al. 2017. Natural Climate Solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 11645–11650. Roe S et al. 2019. Contributon of the land sector to a 1.5C world. Nature Climate Change (in press)


Why Are Adults Bad At New Languages?
Oct 22 2019 2 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Learning a new language as an adult is harder than doing so as a child because adults usually aren’t as invested and often use the wrong strategies. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Second-Language Acquisition: The process of a language that’s not the speaker’s native language.Bilingualism: The ability to speak and understand two languages. Monitor Model: A group of hypotheses that propose that linguistic competence is only advanced when language is subconsciously acquired.Sociolinguistics: The study of language in relation to all sorts of social factors.Linguistic Investment: A motivation to learn a language based on the understanding that the speaker will acquire a wider range of symbolic and material resources, which will in turn increase the value of their cultural capital and social power.Hyperpolyglot: A person who can speak and understand more than six languages. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Editor and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Hartshorne, J., Tenenbaum, J., and Pinker, S. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition. 177: 263-277. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027718300994 Bigelow, M., and Tarone, E. (2004). The Role of Literacy Level in Second Language Acquisition: Doesn't Who We Study Determine What We Know? TESOL Quarterly. 38(4): 689-700. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588285?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Darvin, R. and Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a Model of Investment in Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 35: 36-56. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics/article/identity-and-a-model-of-investment-in-applied-linguistics/91EE4C7572272B233A16286768E0E5B8. Pierce, B. (2015). Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly. 29(1): 9-31. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3587803?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents. Derakshan, A. (2015). The Interference of First Language and Second Language Acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 5(10):2112-211. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283524046_The_Interference_of_First_Language_and_Second_Language_Acquisition. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472.Bigelow, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Curriculum and Instruction. University of Minnesota.Paesani, K. (2019). Personal Communication. The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. University of Minnesota.

Why Our Bodies Are Hurting Us
Oct 10 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The same enzyme that used to save us is now killing us because the body reactions it catalyzes now cause more harm than good. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyclooxygenase: An enzyme responsible for the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins.Thromboxane: A lipid that acts as a platelet aggregator.Platelets: Special non-nucleic blood cells that clump together to cause blood clots.Prostaglandins: A lipid that causes vasodilation and inflammation.Aspirin: A form of acetylsalicylic acid that acts as an NSAID.NSAIDs: Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that inhibit COX, and thus inflammation and clotting. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer and Narrator: David Goldenberg Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman Video Directors: David Goldenberg and Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Julián Gómez Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Fitzpatrick, F. (2004). Cyclooxygenase Enzymes: Regulation and Function.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10:577-588. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965321.Dubois, R., Abramson, S., Crofford, L., Gupta, R., Simon, L., Van De Putte, L., Lipsky, P. (1998). Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. The FASEB Journal 212(12):1063-73. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9737710.Havird, J., Kocot, K., Brannock, P., Cannon, J., Waits, D., Weese, D., Santos, S., Halanych, K. (2015). Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity. 80(3-4):193-208. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758350.Ricciotti, E. and FitzGerald, G. (2011).Prostaglandins and Inflammation. ATVB In Focs. 31(5): 986–1000. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081099/. Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472.Van't Hof, J., Duval, S., Misialek, J., Oldenburg, N., Jones, C., Eder, M., Luepker, R. (2019). Aspirin Use for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an African American Population: Prevalence and Associations with Health Behavior Beliefs. Journal of Community Health. 44(3):561-568. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30895416.Leupker, R. (2019). Personal Communication. Minnesota Heart Health Program. University of Minnesota.Chipman, J. (2019). Personal Communication. DEpartment of Surgery. University of Minnesota.

Why Exercise Is Hard
Sep 11 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Because exercise isn't essential for short-term survival, we don't exercise enough, so we need to reincorporate purposeful physical activity into our lives. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Physical activity - any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal levelExercise - a form of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed (primarily) with the goal of improving health or fitnessRecommended levels of physical activity (USA) - 150 minutes moderate-intensity or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination, and muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days / weekEvolutionary medicine - a field that uses evolutionary theory & data to better understand (the origins of) health & diseaseMismatch conditions - health conditions that are more prevalent or severe today than in the past because the body is inadequately or insufficiently adapted to modern environmental conditions (likely including: cavities, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Forget Exercise. For Better Health, We Need Better Cities - https://qz.com/quartzy/1615436/the-solution-to-make-america-physically-active/ Magazine article about why exercise is hard - https://harvardmagazine.com/2016/09/born-to-restOn an individual level, psychology is involved, too: https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/maybe-youd-exercise-more-if-it-didnt-feel-so-crappy/ Americans aren’t getting the message about exercising more & sitting less - https://time.com/5635730/exercise-sitting-data/ What healthy living and fixing climate change have in common - https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2019/05/planetary-health-and-12-years-to-act/ The wonder drug that's free - https://bit.ly/2lHAjsIHow to live to be 100+ (TED Talk) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ff40YiMmVkU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Booth, F. W., et al. 2017. Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evolutionary insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiological reviews, 97(4), 1351-1402. https://bit.ly/2kEl4AyDing, D., et al. 2016. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1311-1324. https://bit.ly/2kfGVy8Hoed, M. D., et al. 2013. Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(5), 1317-1325. https://bit.ly/2lNxeHkLee, I. M., et al. 2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. https://bit.ly/2ER2cT4Lee, H. H., et al. 2016. The exercise–affect–adherence pathway: an evolutionary perspective. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1285. https://bit.ly/2maYy2ELewis, B. A., personal communication. May 2019.Lewis, B. A., et al. 2014. A randomized trial examining a physical activity intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression: the healthy mom trial. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7(1), 42-49. https://bit.ly/2m9Xa0eLieberman, D. E. 2015. Is exercise really medicine? An evolutionary perspective. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 313-319. https://bit.ly/2xuQtFURhodes, R. E., et al. 2018. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://bit.ly/2kaPBpkUS Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2Q1eF09US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. 2018 Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2FmVa9pWHO. 2019. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity. Accessed May 2019. https://bit.ly/2TLLSuw

The Secret Global Sewer System
Sep 04 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Ditches and drain pipes help crops survive but can negatively impact the broader landscape. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. __________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Waterlog - to saturate (a field) with water; a problem for most cropsDrainage - the removal of liquid (water) from an areaDitch - a narrow channel dug in the ground, typically used for drainage alongside a road or the edge of a fieldDrain tile - a pipe buried (beneath a field) for drainage. Originally made of ceramic tiles, now typically of corrugated plasticPrecision agriculture - putting corn seed + small dose of fertilizer/pesticides in hole in groundControlled drainage - the use of a water control structure to raise the depth of a drain tile outlet to hold water in the field when drainage isn't neededWood chip bioreactor - an underground trench filled with wood chips that provide carbon for bacteria that denitrify the water flowing through itSaturated buffer - a strip on the edge of a field filled with plants & bacteria that can remove some nitrogen from the water flowing onto it from drain tilesDenitrification - the removal of nitrogen from a substance (soil, air, or water) by chemical reduction, typically via bacteriaWetland - an area of land where water covers the soil year-round or at certain times of yearEcosystem services - the free benefits humans get from natural ecosystems ________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why plant roots need oxygen: https://bit.ly/2kgD0BeRestored wetlands don’t recover their original ecosystem functions: https://bit.ly/2VrccKKA guide to agricultural drainage: https://bit.ly/2jX1ChZ ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Image Credits: Aerial view of treatment wetlands - Photo by David Hansen ________________________________________ References: Christianson, L.E. & Helmers, M.J., 2011. Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agricultural Drainage. Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications. 85. https://bit.ly/2kdXPx7Davidson, N. C. 2014. How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65(10), 934-941. https://bit.ly/2lwLUKWDavidson, N. C., Fluet-Chouinard, E., & Finlayson, C. M. 2018. Global extent and distribution of wetlands: trends and issues. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(4), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17019Discovery Farms MN. November 2016. Controlling Nutrient Loss in Tile Systems. https://bit.ly/2lTi8QIDolph, C. Pers. comm. June 2019 Erb, K. H., et al. 2017. Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies. Global change biology, 23(2), 512-533. https://bit.ly/2kgs7znFeick, S., Siebert, S., & Döll, P. 2005. A digital global map of artificially drained agricultural areas. https://bit.ly/2ksM3ifFinlay, J. Pers. comm. June 2019 Foufoula‐Georgiou, E., et al. 2015. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions. Water Resources Research, 51(8), 6649-6671. https://bit.ly/2lu6Su7Hansen, A. T., Dolph, C. L., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., & Finlay, J. C. 2018. Contribution of wetlands to nitrate removal at the watershed scale. Nature Geoscience, 11(2), 127. https://bit.ly/2lQe9nYIPBES. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. S. Díaz, et al. (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Pg 11-12. https://bit.ly/2WX4c4UMillennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2QYNd0vMustroph, A. 2018. Improving flooding tolerance of crop plants. Agronomy, 8(9), 160. https://bit.ly/2k1jzfuUN FAO. Water uses. Accessed June 2019. https://bit.ly/1yOPz3fUS EPA. Why are Wetlands Important? Accessed June 2019. https://bit.ly/2gA3KoZ

The Optimal Way To Browse The Internet
Aug 27 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The decisions we make while we browse the internet are suprisingly similar to the ones animals make as they forage for food...here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Optimality models: tools used to evaluate the costs and benefits of different organismal features, traits, and characteristics, including behavior, in the natural world.Optimal foraging theory: a behavioral ecology model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food.Marginal value theorem: an optimality model that describes the strategy that maximizes gain per unit time in systems where resources, and thus rate of returns, decrease with time.Central place foraging: a model for analyzing how an organism traveling from a home base to a distant foraging location can maximize foraging rates. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Narrator, & Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Chi, EH, Pirolli, P, and Pitkow, J. (2000) The scent of a site: A system for analyzing and predicting information scent, usage, and usability of a web site. In: ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.42.7499&rep=rep1&type=pdf Fu, W and Pirolli, P. (2007) SNIF-ACT: a cognitive model of user navigation on the world wide web. Human-Computer Interactions 22(4), 355-412. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0d96/d03cf822ea1584b468389b3f4bc39164d85f.pdf Hayden, BY (2018) Economic choice: The foraging perspective. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 24: 1–6. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/economic-choice-the-foraging-perspective Hayden, BY, Pearson, JM, and Platt, ML. (2011) Neuronal basis of sequential foraging decisions in a patchy environment. Nature Neuroscience 14: 933-939 https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2856Hall-McMaster, S and Luyckx F. (2019) Revisiting foraging approaches in neuroscience. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 19 (2): 225-230. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13415-018-00682-z Pyke, G and Stephens, DW. (2019) Optimal foraging theory: application and inspiration in human endeavors outside biology. In JC Choe (ed.), Encyclopedia of animal behavior . 2nd edn, vol. 2, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 217-222. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/optimal-foraging-theory-application-and-inspiration-in-human-ende Van Koppen, PJ and Jansen, RWJ. (1998) The road to robbery: Travel patterns in commercial robberies . British Journal of Criminology 38: 230-246. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Koppen/publication/270802169_The_road_to_the_robbery_Travel_patterns_in_commercial_robberies/links/569e080008ae950bd7a81fc2/The-road-to-the-robbery-Travel-patterns-in-commercial-robberies.pdf

How Te See Microbes From Space
Aug 14 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! Observing the effects of microbes using satellites can give us all sorts of useful information about life on Earth ... and other planets too. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons and our YouTube members. And thanks to researchers from the University of Wisconsin and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who help generate airborne data used in Professor Jeannine Cavender-Bares' studies. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Microbe - an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size. Remote sensing - the scanning of the earth , especially by satellite or high-flying aircraft, in order to obtain information about it. Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microbe that can cause disease. Chlorophyll - a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Phytoplankton - photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. Cholera - an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Evaporite - a natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water. Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) - primary sedimentary structures formed by the interaction of microbes with sediment and physical agents of erosion, deposition, and transportation. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: Say hello on Facebook: And Twitter: And download our videos on iTunes: ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Director: Julián Gómez, David Goldenberg Video Narrator: Julián Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Mirik M, Jones DC, Price JA, Workneh F, Ansley RJ, Rush CM. Satellite remote sensing of wheat infected by wheat streak mosaic virus. Plant Disease. 2011 Jan;95(1):4-12. Lowe A, Harrison N, French AP. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques for the detection and classification of the early onset of plant disease and stress. Plant methods. 2017 Dec;13(1):80. Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque AS, Colwell R. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 Feb 15;97(4):1438-43. de Magny GC, Mozumder PK, Grim CJ, Hasan NA, Naser MN, Alam M, Sack RB, Huq A, Colwell RR. Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2011 Sep 1;77(17):6125-32. Colwell RR. Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science. 1996 Dec 20;274(5295):2025-31. Lausch A, Erasmi S, King D, Magdon P, Heurich M. Understanding forest health with remote sensing-part II—a review of approaches and data models. Remote Sensing. 2017 Feb 5;9(2):129. Meng J, Li S, Wang W, Liu Q, Xie S, Ma W. Mapping forest health using spectral and textural information extracted from spot-5 satellite images. Remote Sensing. 2016 Aug 31;8(9):719. Baldridge AM, Farmer JD, Moersch JE. Mars remote‐sensing analog studies in the Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2004 Dec;109(E12). Barbieri R, Stivaletta N. Continental evaporites and the search for evidence of life on Mars. Geological Journal. 2011 Nov;46(6):513-24. Crowley JK, Hook SJ. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 1996 Jan 10;101(B1):643-60. Noffke N. Ancient sedimentary structures in the [less than] 3.7 Ga Gillespie Lake Member, Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites. Astrobiology. 2015 Feb 1;15(2):169-92. Landis GA. Searching for life: the case for Halobacteria on Mars. InAIP Conference Proceedings 2001 Feb 2 (Vol. 552, No. 1, pp. 25-28). AIP.

The Bacteria That Made Life Possible Is Now Killing Us
Jul 23 2019 3 mins  
Aquatic cyanobacteria first oxygenated earth’s air, making human life possible; now, due to our actions, cyanobacteria are madly blooming once more, poisoning our coasts in the process Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cyanobacteria: aquatic photosynthesizing bacteria often erroneously call blue-green algaeBlue-green algae: incorrect name often used for cyanobacteria because they are blue-green in appearance and can be confused with algae Dead zone: coastal area where cyanobacteria blooms lead to anaerobic conditions, killing fish and other organismsMycrosystins: a class of toxic compounds released by certain cyanobacteria ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Bargu S et al. Mississippi River diversions and phytoplankton dynamics in deltaic Gulf of Mexico estuaries: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 221:39-52 (2019). Berman-Frank I, Lundgren P, Falkowski P. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria. Research in Microbiology 154, 157–164 (2003)Carey CC et al. Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate. Water Research 46, 1394-1407 (2012)Garcia AK et al. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth’s photic zone since the Archean. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:4619-4624 (2017)Glass JB, Wolfe-Simon F, Anbar AD. Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae. Geobiology 7, 100-123 (2009).Lyons TW, CT Reinhard, NJ Planavsky. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere Nature 506, 307–315 (2014). Planavsky NJ et al. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature 467, 1088-1090 (2010)Soo RM et al. On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria. Science 355, 1436–1440 (2017) Tromas N et al. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME J 11:1746-1763 (2017)

The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning
Jul 16 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ The technology we use to keep cool is heating the world in a vicious feedback cycle, so we need to improve it and use it less. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with this keyword: Refrigerant - a substance used in air conditioners & refrigerators for its ability to change phases and transfer heat ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How AC changed the world: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-39735802People use AC to make their homes feel like Africa: http://bit.ly/2Y9fOH3 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Video Narrator: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: European Commission. Climate-friendly alternatives to HFCs. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en Accessed May 2019.Gunawardena, K. R., et al. 2017. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 1040-1055. http://bit.ly/2GbBuHYGraves, R. Pers. comm. May 2019.International Energy Agency. 2017. Space cooling: More access, more comfort, less energy. https://www.iea.org International Energy Agency. 2018. The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning. https://www.iea.org/futureofcooling/International Institute of Refrigeration. Nov 2017. The impact of the refrigeration sector on climate change. http://bit.ly/30A56XhKeeler, B. L., et al. 2019. Social-ecological and technological factors moderate the value of urban nature. Nature Sustainability, 2(1), 29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-018-0202-1 Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2016. Recovery, Recycling & Destruction of CFC, HCFC, & HFC. https://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/ozone/leaf2016/04.pdf Pakbaznia, E., & Pedram, M. 2009. Minimizing data center cooling and server power costs. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (pp. 145-150). http://bit.ly/2JDL5bNReardon, C. & Clarke, R. 2013. Passive cooling. Australian Government: Your Home. http://bit.ly/2LNMmj7Sachar, S., et al. 2018. Solving the Global Cooling Challenge: How to Counter the Climate Threat from Room Air Conditioners. Rocky Mountain Institute. www.rmi.org/insight/solving_the_global_cooling_challenge Sadineni, S. B., et al. 2011. Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631. http://bit.ly/2G9uGecSivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. ERL, 8(1), 014050. http://bit.ly/2SbyOixZhang, X., & Caldeira, K. 2015. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. GRL, 42(11), 4548-4555. http://bit.ly/2LS8id0Zhao, L., et al. 2015. Reduction of potential greenhouse gas emissions of room air-conditioner refrigerants: a life cycle carbon footprint analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.063


Why We Should Invest In Rat Massage
Jul 05 2019 4 mins  
Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth to get 75% off a 3 year plan and use code MINUTEEARTH for an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today. Basic research can seem wasteful, but it's actually a great economic investment. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Evoniuk, G, Kuhn, and C Schanberg, SM. (1979) The effect of tactile stimulation on serum growth hormone and tissue ornithine decarboxylase activity during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Communications in Psychopharmacology 3:363–370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/548216 Field T, Diego M, and M Hernandez-Reif (2010) Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review. Infant Behavioral Development 33: 115-124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844909/ Jones, CI, and JC Williams (1998) Measuring the Social Return to R&D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(5): 1119-1135. https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-abstract/113/4/1119/1916988?redirectedFrom=fulltext Press, WH. (2013) What's So Special about Science (And How Much Should We Spend on It?), Science 342: 817-822. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/817.full Salter, AJ and BR Martin. (2001) The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Research Policy 30:509-532. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733300000913 Schanberg SM, Evoniuk G and CM Kuhn. (1984) Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care. specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 175, 135–146. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-175-41779?journalCode=ebma

How to Turn Cancer Against Itself
Jun 20 2019 3 mins  
This video was made in partnership with the Swiss National Science Foundation. To see more videos about the importance of basic research, go to https://www.youtube.com/SNSFinfo ↓↓↓ Or watch the THREE OTHER VIDEOS we made with SNSF↓↓↓ What’s intelligent about artificial intelligence? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR6j9TLZdAw Why kids skip school (& what to do about it) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-MwcsyMk2k Why you should abandon some of your dreams - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Qy8pBaugRY Cancer has proven hard to beat, but a promising new type of treatment can use the disease's own powers against it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Monoclonal antibodies: antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell Hybridoma: a hybrid cell used as the basis for the production of antibodies in large amounts for diagnostic or therapeutic use ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder __________________________________________ References: Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. B Cells and Antibodies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/ Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL (2015). The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. MAbs 7(1): 9-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622599/ Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497. https://www.nature.com/articles/256495a0

This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants
Jun 13 2019 3 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Morocco has 3/4 of the world’s known reserves of rock phosphate, our main source of phosphorus, so Morocco may be key to our long-term ability to grow food. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Phosphorus - a chemical element used in explosives, matches, and fertilizers (as it is a key nutrient for plant growth) Phosphate rock - a sedimentary rock containing high amounts of phosphate minerals - the main source of agricultural P fertilizer Phosphate - a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO4 -3 or a related anion or a group 4 Rs of Nutrient Management - Right fertilizer source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, and in the Right place Reserve - the part of a resource that could be economically extracted or produced at the moment Resource - a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Article about conflict in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2ZjYjQW Radio about Phosphorus mines in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2IFv8kC Magazine about 350th Anniv of Phosphorus Discovery - http://bit.ly/2wLw0i3 ________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor (@jessika_arts) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Amundson, R., et al 2015. Soil and human security in the 21st century. Science, 348(6235), 1261071. http://bit.ly/2R0dRXe Bailey, J. Pers. comm. Feb 2019 Chowdhury, R. B., et al. 2017. Key sustainability challenges for the global phosphorus resource, their implications for global food security, and options for mitigation. J. of Cleaner Prod., 140, 945-963. http://agri.ckcest.cn/ass/NK001-20170130004.pdf CIA. The World Factbook. Country Comparison: Crude Oil - Proved Reserves. Accessed January 2019. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2244rank.html Cooper, J., et al. 2011. The future distribution and production of global phosphate rock reserves. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.009 Cordell, D., et al. 2009. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global env change, 19(2), 292-305. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2014. Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Ann Rev of Env & Res, 39, 161-188. 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113300 Cordell, D., & White, S. 2015. Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system. Food Sec, 7(2), 337-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0442-0 Elser, J., & Bennett, E. 2011. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29. http://bit.ly/2WvUark Filippelli, G. M. 2011. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective. Chemosphere, 84(6), 759-766. http://bit.ly/2X0mTcf MacDonald, G. K., et al. 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS, 108(7), 3086-3091. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/108/7/3086.full.pdf Peterson, H. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Rosen, C. Pers comm. Jan 2019 Sattari, S. Z., et al. 2012. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. PNAS, 109(16), 6348-6353. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/16/6348.full.pdf Statista.com. Rare earth reserves worldwide by country 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277268/rare-earth-reserves-by-country/ Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671. http://bit.ly/2KCL3To

The Secrets of Extreme Breath Holding
May 01 2019 3 mins  
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days here: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. And use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off a yearly membership. Humans can hold our breath longer than we think by taking advantage of our body’s innate survival instincts - and then ignoring them. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Static Apnea: Holding your breath without swimming or moving. Apneist: Someone who competes in apnea-related contests. Fight or Flight Response: A set of physiological responses to a perceived mortal threat. Mammalian Dive Reflex: A set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes. Diaphragm: A strip of skeletal muscles underneath the lungs that contracts and flattens when you inhale. It starts spasming as part of involuntary breathing movements when the body starts to run out of oxygen. Spleen: An organ that primarily acts as a blood filter that can deflate to return blood to the circulatory system. Carbon Dioxide Tension: The increase in CO2 pressure in the blood as oxygen levels fall. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Mike Boyd learns how to hold his breath for 4 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6iyDEWG1CU _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius, Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bain, A., Drvis, I., Dujic, Z., MacLeod, D., Ainslie, P. (2018). Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists. Experimental Physiology. 103 (635-651). Retrieved from: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP086269. Hutchinson, A. (2018). Pushing the Limits of Extreme Breath-Holding. New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/pushing-the-limits-of-extreme-breath-holding. Panneton, W. M. (2013). The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life? Physiology. 28(5): 284–297. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768097/. Petrović, Branko (2019). Personal Communication. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B. (2000). Effects of physical and apnea training on apneic time and the diving response in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82(3) : 161-9. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10929209. Schagatay, Erika (2019). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University

Why Is Lyme Disease Getting Worse?
Apr 22 2019 2 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! https://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Lyme disease is spreading like wildfire around the world: here's why. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii) Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brunner, J. L., LoGiudice, K., & Ostfeld, R. S. 2008. Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Journal of medical entomology, 45(1), 139-147. http://bit.ly/2ZmxIDP Keesing, F., et al. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Bological Sciences, 276(1675), 3911-3919. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/do... Kilpatrick, A. M. et al. 2017 Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117 Magnaval, J. F., et al. 2016. A serological survey about zoonoses in the verkhoyansk area, northeastern siberia (sakha republic, Russian federation). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1828 Ostfeld, R. S., et al. 2014. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone..... Ostfeld, R. S., Levi, T. , Keesing, F. , Oggenfuss, K. and Canham, C. D. (2018), Tick‐borne disease risk in a forest food web. Ecology, 99: 1562-1573. doi:10.1002/ecy.2386 Robinson, S. J., et al. 2015. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. EcoHealth, 12(1), 152-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10393-0... Scott, J. D. et al. 2017. Lyme disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, detected in multiple tick species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada. J. Bact. Parasitol, 8. http://bit.ly/2ZjOXWd Vandenesch, A., et al. 2014. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(34), 20883. http://bit.ly/2Dn693Q Wu, X. B., et al. 2013. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasites & Vectors, 6(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-119

You Are A Fish
Mar 21 2019 3 mins  
We built the Tree of Life Explorer! Check it out: https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/ And watch this video to learn more about it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eE2fCLay-Q With our current understanding of evolutionary history and our strategy of cladistic naming, if we wanted to have both goldfish and sharks under a single group called "fish", then mammals must also be called fish. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: - Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species - Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms - Monophyletic group (or clade): a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor - Paraphyletic group: all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups - Similarity trap: people can name different species the same thing, only to find out they aren’t even closely related. We made a video about this phenomana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flVK-rbeT4g ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Jasper Palfree Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman Video Director: Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Ever Salazar & Jasper Palfree With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Weinstein, Bret (2016). On Being a Fish. Inference, Volume 2, Issue 3 September. https://inference-review.com/article/on-being-a-fish Lahti, David (2016). An Ambivalent Amphibian (In response to "On Being a Fish"). Volume 2, Issue 4 December. https://inference-review.com/letter/an-ambivalent-amphibian Podani, János (2013). Tree thinking, time and topology: Comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics Volume 29, Issue 3. May http://real.mtak.hu/9727/1/PodaniOnTreesFINAL.pdf

The Problem With Concrete
Mar 01 2019 3 mins  
This video is in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: https://b-gat.es/2GxIwba Concrete is responsible for 8% of humanity’s carbon emissions because making its key ingredient - cement - chemically releases CO2, and because we burn fossil fuels to make it happen. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Portland cement - the most common type of cement used worldwide, made with limestone Limestone - a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate (which is also in shells & eggs) Cement - a powder used in construction that’s made by grinding clinker with other minerals and mixing with water to form a paste that sticks to sand, gravel or crushed stone to make concrete Concrete - a building material made by mixing cement with water to form a paste that gains body through fillers like sand and gravel Clinker - an intermediate marble-sized product in cement production created by sintering limestone with clay and other things Sinter - to turn a powdery solid into a single mass by heating it without liquefaction Mortar - another building material (used to adhere bricks or stones together) made by mixing cement with water and sand Calcination - the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting point, so it thermally decomposes (like limestone into lime & CO2) Process emissions - the name for the CO2 that comes from limestone when it thermally decomposes ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Adam Thompson Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Andrew, R. M. 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), 195. https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/195/2018/essd-10-195-2018.pdf Benhelal, E., et al. 2013. Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. Journal of cleaner production, 51, 142-161. http://www.academia.edu/download/39977040/1-s2.0-S0959652612006129-main.pdf Beyond Zero Emissions. August 2017. Zero Carbon Industry Plan: Rethinking Cement. Available for download at http://bze.org.au Davis, S.J., et al. 2018. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt16109441/qt16109441.pdf Lehne, J., & Preston., F. June 2018. Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report. http://bit.ly/2Vlb3oC Timperley, J. September 13 2018. Q&A: Why cement emissions matter for climate change. https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-why-cement-emissions-matter-for-climate-change World Bank. 2019. World Development Indicators: Urban population. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL

Why Earthquakes Are So Hard To Predict
Feb 13 2019 3 mins  
Scientists are trying to figure out if they can predict big earthquakes by simulating small quakes in labs and studying big quakes under the ocean. Thanks to the University of Rhode Island for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Earthquake: A violent shaking of the earth, usually due to movements of tectonic plates under the earth’s crust. Seismometer: An instrument that detects changes in the up-down motion of the earth. Seismic body waves: Higher frequency waves released by earthquakes that can move through solid rock. Seismic surface waves: Lower frequency waves released by earthquakes that move along the ground and cause most damage. Earthquake Early Warning System: A network of strategically placed seismometers that trigger emergency warning systems in particular areas when they detect large seismic body waves. Evacuation Clearance Time: The time needed to evacuate a particular population to safety. Earthquake Precursor: An anomalous event that gives an effective warning of an impending earthquake. Transform Faults: Faults where two tectonic plates slide past each other. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor, Video Director & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 1654416. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. ___________________________________________ References: Geller, R. (1997). Earthquake Prediction: A Critical Review. Geophysical Journal International. 131 (425-450). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/131/3/425/2138719 Wei, M. (2018). Seismic Behavior on Oceanic Transform Faults at the East Pacific Rise. Transform Plate Boundaries and Fracture Zones. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/transform-plate-boundaries-and-fracture-zones/duarte/978-0-12-812064-4 Hsu, Y., and Peeta, S. (2015). Clearance Time Estimation for Incorporating Evacuation Risk in Routing Strategies for Evacuation Operation. Networks and Spatial Economics. 15 (743-764). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11067-013-9195-5 Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Wei, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island.


Why Are Your Fingerprints Unique?
Jan 15 2019 3 mins  
Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. Use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off Dashlane Premium. Because of the chaotic way fingerprints develop and the multiplying effect of compound probability, it's basically impossible for any two fingers to have matching prints. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fingerprint: The markings on the skin on the last joint of the thumb or finger. Fingerprint Ridges: The raised lines on the fingerprint. Fingerprint Pattern: The main design in the middle of the fingerprint; usually a loop, whorl, or arch. Volar Pad: The mass of stem cells that grows under the fingers during a particular time during fetal development that is responsible for determining the pattern of the fingerprint. Fingerprint Minutiae: The various tiny points in each fingertip where the ridgelines get blocked or split. Compound Probability: The likelihood that independent events will occur simultaneously. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia & Ever Salazar With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314. Kucken, M. (2007). Models for Fingerprint Pattern Formation. Forensic Science International. 171 (85-96). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459625. Kucken, Michael (2018). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Wertheim, K. (2011). Fingerprint Sourcebook: Embryology and Morphology of the Friction Skin Ridge. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=247303

The Bird Poop That Changed The World
Dec 14 2018 3 mins  
Thanks to my grandmother for inspiring this story, and to my mother for helping make it. If you like our videos, please consider supporting MinuteEarth on Patreon! - Alex Bird poop was the gateway fertilizer that turned humanity onto the imported-chemical-based farming system of modern agriculture. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Guano: seabird (or bat) poop. From the indigenous Peruvian word “wanu”, meaning “manure that’s good for fertilizer" Manure: animal poop used as fertilizer (typically cow or pig poop) Fertilizer: a chemical-containing substance added to soil to provide nutrients to plants Nitrate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element nitrogen (sodium nitrate) Phosphate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element phosphorus Haber-Bosch process: the major industrial method to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to ammonia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Our fertilizer is killing us. Here's a fix: https://grist.org/article/billionaires-and-bacteria-are-racing-to-save-us-from-death-by-fertilizer/ Why bird poop is white: https://www.audubon.org/news/what-makes-bird-poop-white In 1856 US Congress enabled US citizens to take over unclaimed islands with guano on them: http://americanhistory.si.edu/norie-atlas/guano-islands-act Guano is in demand again today: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/world/americas/30peru.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr ___________________________________________ References: Canby, T.Y. 2002. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. VI. Introduction: Pg. 26-27. Sandy Spring Museum. Cushman, G.T. 2013. Guano and the opening of the Pacific World: A global ecological history. Cambridge University Press. Cushman, G.T., personal communication, October 2018. Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr Lorimor, J., Powers, W., Sutton, A. 2004. Manure Characteristics. MWPS-18, Section 1. Second Edition. Table 6. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/files/ManureCharacteristicsMWPS-18_1.pdf Robinson, M.B. April 26, 2007. In Once-Rural Montgomery, a Rich History. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/25/AR2007042501342.html S. Sands & Son. 1875. The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. Vol. 4, Issue 12, pg. 417-418. Baltimore. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=ul1TAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA417 Stabler, H.O. 1950. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. V, Pg. 43. American Publishing Company. Szpak, P., et al. 2012. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with Maize (Zea mays). PloS one, 7(3), e33741. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033741 Thanks also to the Sandy Spring Museum.

These Names Can Kill Animals
Dec 05 2018 3 mins  
To get your free 30-day trial of CuriosityStream, go to https://curiositystream.com/minute and use the code "minute". Just like the names of products and companies, animals' names can affect how we feel about them...and changing the name of a species might actually help us save it. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Hong Kong's Golden Beach Dolphin Plaza by Wikimedia user WiNg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Golden_Beach_Dolphin_Plaza.jpg African Wild Dog by Mathias Appel https://www.flickr.com/photos/mathiasappel/25233930273 Family Dog by Richard Elzey https://www.flickr.com/photos/elzey/6307525340/ Sloth by Régis Leroy https://www.flickr.com/photos/regilero/8727491349 Racoon Just Checking the Trash by Julie Corsi https://www.flickr.com/photos/corsinet/2967516964/ Scorpion by Steve Slater https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlife_encounters/11026569913/ Snake by Photo by Jessica Bolser/USFWS https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmidwest/11193222776/ ___________________________________________ References: Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2008) Trade secrets: renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy 32: 309-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07000760 Karaffa, P.T., M.M. Draheim, and Parsons, E.C.M. (2012) What’s in a name? Do species’ names impact student support for conservation? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17: 308-310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2012.676708?journalCode=uhdw20 Parsons, E.C.M., personal communication, October 2018. Rasmussen, G.S.A. (1999) Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320798000068?via%3Dihub Sarasa M., Alasaad S., and Pérez J.M. (2012) Common names of species, the curious case of Capra pyrenaica and the concomitant steps towards the 'wild-to-domestic' transformation of a flagship species and its vernacular names. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1–12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-011-0172-3 Scott, C. (2015) Otter social science research: An evaluation of the general public’s knowledge of otter species. (Master’s thesis) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Retrieved from digilib.gmu.edu/ xmlui/handle/1920/10282 Wright, A., Veríssimo, D., Pilfold, K., Parsons, E. C. M., Ventre, K., Cousins, J., et al. (2015). Competitive outreach in the 21st Century: why we need conservation marketing. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 41–48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001829

The Mystery of The Exploding Appendix
Nov 14 2018 2 mins  
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: https://tab.gladly.io/minuteearth2/ Rates of appendicitis vary around the world, likely due to the forces of modernization. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. **Appendix** - There are many other unforeseen health changes that seem to be related to the forces of modernization, like the increase in rates of diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and ADHD. Those changes likely stem from all sorts of complicated genetic and environmental interactions - including changes in diet, exposure to pollution, and access to hygiene - that researchers haven’t yet figured out. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Fecalith: A stony mass of feces inside a person’s intestinal tract. Appendix: A tube-shaped sac at the bottom of a person’s intestinal tract. Appendicitis: A painful inflammation of the appendix. Fiber: Plant-derived dietary material that’s resistant to certain digestive enzymes. Tertiary Food Processing: Commercial production of food that often contains synthetic elements or an overabundance of certain salts and sugars. “Western Diet”: A collective term for a diet high in fat, cholesterol, protein, sugar, and salt, that often involves frequent consumption of “fast food”. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9amif1DQMc _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Writer, Editor, Director & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) with Adam Thompson With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Addiss, D., Shaffer, N., Fowler, B., Tauxe, R. (1990). The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. The American Journal of Epidemiology.132:5 (910-1925). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2239906 Fares, A. (2014). Summer Appendicitis. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research. 4(1): 18-21. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952290 Ferris, M., Quan, S., Kaplan, B., Molodecky, N., Ball, C., Chernoff, G., Bhala, N., Ghosh, S., Dixon, E., Ng, S., Kaplan, G. (2017). The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies. Annals of Surgery. 266:2 (237-241). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288060 Kaplan, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, The Gastrointestinal REsearch Group, University of Calgary. Ramdass, M., Young Sing, Q., Milne, D., Mooteeram, J., and Barrow, S. (2015). Association between the appendix and the fecalith in adults. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 58 (10-14). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309758/

Why Do You Make So Many Poop Videos? (& Other Questions)
Oct 31 2018 5 mins  
We answer your burning questions in our first-ever Q&A video. Thanks for asking, and for watching!! Thanks also to our patrons and YouTube members. You make MinuteEarth possible https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Writing and Narration From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ LINKS 3) What To Do When It's Really Cold Outside | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Gs6tyiNX4 5) Jesse's Channel - This Place | https://www.youtube.com/user/ThisPlaceChannel/ 6) Arcadi's Channel - Tippe Top Physics | https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics/ 7) Hot Mess | https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw/ 8) MinutePhysics | https://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics 9) Ever's Dormant Channel - Un Punto Circular | https://www.youtube.com/UnPuntoCircular 10) Lion Guardians | http://lionguardians.org/ 11) Paradigms Show | https://vrv.co/paradigms 12) MinuteLabs | http://www.minutelabs.io 14) Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA 15) Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE 16) The Deadliest Ice Age Ever | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJWIgS-1hJc 17) How We Make MinuteEarth Videos (Behind the Scenes) | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnIZybxCW1k 18) ASAP Science | https://www.youtube.com/AsapSCIENCE/ 19) Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c 20) MinuteEarth in other languages: Spanish: https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDeLaTierra French: https://www.youtube.com/MinutePourLaTerre Italian: https://www.youtube.com/MinutiDellaTerra Portuguese (Brazilian): https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDaTerra 21) These are our favorite MinuteEarth videos: David | Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN1brVnlBZU Emily | Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c Melissa | This Is Not A Bee https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs Alex | Climate Change: The View From MinuteEarth https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEX2J_sAdGs Kate | Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA Ever’s Playlist https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA&list=PLJTyadQhEGyWJJaTkzwdsAWl1MCHNtFRR

The Secret Weapon That Could Help Save Bees
Oct 04 2018 2 mins  
Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Honeybees are dying from parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition, but we can help them in a number of ways, including by encouraging them to make a homemade antibiotic. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Propolis: a kind of bee glue made up of resins and beeswax, rich in flavonoids and aromatic acids with antibiotic properties Pollination circuit: commercial bee-keepers move their colonies around the country, renting them out to farmers to pollinate almonds, apples, and many other crops. Bee health: term used to indicate concern about a set of issues challenging to health of honey bees, including parasites, pathogens, and pesticides. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) with Ever Salazar Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Spivak, M, Browning Z, Goblirsch M, Lee K, Otto C, Smart M, Wu-Smart J. 2017. Why Does Bee Health Matter? The Science Surrounding Honey Bee Health Concerns and What We Can Do About It. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) Commentary, QTA2017. CAST, Ames, Iowa. Pp 1-16 Borba, R. S. & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis envelope in Apis melliferacolonies supports honey bees against the pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. Scientific Reports 7: 11429. Klein S, Cabirol A, Devaud JM, Barron AB, Lihoreau M. (2017). Why Bees Are So Vulnerable to Environmental Stressors. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Apr;32(4):268-278. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.12.009. Epub 2017 Jan 19. Simone-Finstrom, M., Borba, R. S., Wilson, M., & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health. Insects, 8(2), 46. http://doi.org/10.3390/insects8020046

Why Malaria Isn’t Just a Tropical Disease
Sep 12 2018 2 mins  
Watch Hot Mess here! ►► http://bit.ly/hotmess_sub Malaria is a global disease that we've beaten back around the world, including in some tropical places, but we’ve had the hardest time in Africa. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Anthropophily: an organism’s propensity to feed on humans rather than other animals Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species and organisms throughout space and time Malaria Control: the reduction of malaria’s impacts to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts. Continued intervention is required to sustain control. Malaria Elimination: the interruption of local transmission (i.e. reducing the rate of malaria cases to zero) of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographic area. Continued intervention is needed to prevent reestablishment of transmission. Malaria Eradication: the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by human malaria parasites, after which intervention measures are no longer needed (e.g. as with smallpox, the only disease we've eradicated) ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: How the US CDC grew out of the "Office of Malaria Control in War Areas": https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/history_cdc.html Amazing animation of how different parts of the world become more or less suitable for malaria over the seasons: https://www.dropbox.com/s/acqlg5l8pnxjl2x/Gething%202011%20Vivax%20suitability%2013071_2011_324_MOESM4_ESM.MPEG?dl=0 Animated map of malaria's shrinking distribution: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2015/10/14/the-shrinking-malaria-map _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. 2002. Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/15/4/564.full.pdf Gething, P. W., et al. 2011. Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & vectors, 4(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92 Hay, S. I., et al. 2004. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS1473-3099(04)01043-6 Lardeux, F. et al. 2007. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia. Malaria journal, 6(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-8 United States CDC. 2018. Malaria: Biology. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html World Health Organization. 2016. World malaria report 2015. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/ World Health Organization. 2016. Eliminating malaria. Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205565/WHO_HTM_GMP_2016.3_eng.pdf

Why Do Some Animals Eat Poop?
Aug 29 2018 3 mins  
Learn more about quokkas over on Animalogic: https://bit.ly/2MWz9pa Animals eat their own poop in order to gain extra access to nutrients or to microbes that help digest those nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Coprophagy: Consuming feces Allocoprophagy: Consuming others’ feces Autocoprophagy: Consuming one’s own feces Fecal microbiota transplant: A treatment for C. diff that involves transplanting feces from a healthy individual into a patient. Cecotropes: Also known as night poops, these are the soft, shiny pellets that rabbits excrete and then consume. Pap: A special substance produced by mother koalas that their babies feed on during the transition from drinking milk to eating eucalyptus leaves. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Masi, S., and Brueur, T. (2018). Dialiumseed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses. American Journal of Primatology. 80:4 (e22752). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29664132 Osawa, R. Blanshard, W. and Ocallaghan, P. (1993). Microbiological Studies of the Intestinal Microflora of the Koala, Phascolarctos-Cinereus .2. Pap, a Special Maternal Feces Consumed by Juvenile Koalas. Australian Journal of Zoology. 41(6): 611-620. Retrieved from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO9930611. Mack, A., and Druliner, G. (2003). A Non-Intrusive Method for Measuring Movements and Seed Dispersal in Cassowaries. Journal of Field Ornithology. 74:2 (193-196). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4131128 Eckman, L. (2018). Personal communication. Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, UCSD. Suen, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Brogan, J. (2016). Everyone Poops. Some Animals Eat It. Why?. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/everyone-poops-some-animals-eat-it-why-180961020/


Why Are There Penguins At The Equator?
Aug 02 2018 2 mins  
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: minuteearth When nutrients from the ocean depths reach the sunlit surface (like in the Galapagos), life is more productive. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of primary production that organisms do, minus the amount of carbon they use up to do so (by respiring) Phytoplankton: microscopic green algae that live in water and get energy through photosynthesis. Learn more here: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/phyto.html Primary Production: the synthesis of organic chemicals from carbon dioxide (mostly happens through photosynthesis) Upwelling: the motion of cooler, usually nutrient-rich, water towards the ocean surface ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Alex Reich & Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Ainley, David. Personal Communication, 2018. Baker, A. J., et al. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc of Royal Soc B: Biol Sci, 273 (1582), 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560011/ Behrenfeld, M. J., et al. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444(7120), 752. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature05317 Boersma, Dee. Personal Communication, 2018. Boyd, P.W., et al. 2014. Cross-chapter box on net primary production in the ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC [Field, C.B., et al (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA, pp. 133-136. Dybdahl, Mark. Personal Communication, 2018. Falkowski, P. G., et al. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374), 200-206. https://goo.gl/1P7b69 Field, C. B., et al. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281(5374), 237-240. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt9gm7074q/qt9gm7074q.pdf Karnauskas, K. B., et al. 2017. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 460, 22-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005 LaRue, Michelle. Personal Communication, 2018. Kallmeyer, Jens. Personal Communication, 2018. Pockalny, Robert. Personal Communication, 2018. Sigman, D. M. & Hain, M. P. 2012. The Biological Productivity of the Ocean. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):21. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-biological-productivity-of-the-ocean-70631104 Stock, Charlie. Personal Communication, 2018. Galapagos penguin diet https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/galpen1/foodhabits Penguin diet https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix Cromwell Current & Galapagos: http://www.iflscience.com/environment/new-study-may-reveal-how-galapagos-islands-became-so-biodiverse/ Penguin distribution: https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix , http://www.penguins.cl/penguins-region.htm Ocean productivity: https://ci.coastal.edu/~sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm

Why Earth Has Two Levels
Jul 12 2018 3 mins  
Get NordVPN at https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth. Use code MINUTEEARTH to save 77%! Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface. Watch our new show Paradigms (U.S. servers only!): https://www.vrv.co/paradigms Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet. Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense). Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle. Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle. Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like "isostatic rebound," which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly). ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461. Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018. Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012 from: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1_surface_histogram.html Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443. Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468. Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.

The Similarity Trap
Jun 27 2018 2 mins  
Try Squarespace for free: http://squarespace.com/MinuteEarth And subscribe to MinuteEarth! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships. Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history. Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments. Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources. Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor. False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike _________________________________________ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) - Steve Garvie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg Turkey vulture (New World) - Flickr User minicooper93402 https://www.flickr.com/photos/minicooper93402/5440526260 Crested Porcupine (Old World) - Flickr user [email protected] https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5398915634 North American Porcupine (New World) - iStock.com/GlobalP https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399 Chinchilla lanigera - Nicolas Guérin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg Ganges river dolphin - Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg Atlantic Spotted Dolphin - Flickr user [email protected] https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/4978423771/ Orcinus orcas - Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg Euphorbia obesa - Frank Vincentz https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg Astrophytum asterias - David Midgley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg Sweet William Dwarf - Nicholas M. Bashour https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862 Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland. Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42 De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/

Rise Of The Mesopredator (ft. ScienceWithTom)
Jun 14 2018 4 mins  
Try Dashlane for free: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Use promo code "minuteearth" for 10% off Dashlane Premium. To see song lyrics, click "CC" on the video or, for an annotated version, click here: https://genius.com/14774391 Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem. Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web. Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them. Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators. Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem. Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Tom McFadden Script Editor: David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/... Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1... McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.

How Long Can We Live?
May 29 2018 3 mins  
Try Squarespace for free: http://www.squarespace.com/MINUTEEARTH The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible. ___________________________________________ Video Keywords: Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication) Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.... Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249 Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1... Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/... Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)

When Trees Go Nuts
May 10 2018 2 mins  
Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.

Why You Shouldn't Give Ginger To Monkeys (and other animal sayings)
Apr 25 2018 3 mins  
Learn new skills from this video’s sponsor, Skillshare: http://skl.sh/minuteearth4 Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling. Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words. Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object. Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world. ___________________________________________ If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016. Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html

Milk Is Just Filtered Blood
Apr 12 2018 2 mins  
Join Honey for FREE at: https://www.joinhoney.com/MinuteEarth. Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode. Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young. Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands. Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk. Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland. Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing. Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187 Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357 Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995 Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758


Are Plastics Too Strong?
Apr 06 2018 2 mins  
The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons. Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule. Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances. Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level. Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi... Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi... PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj LEGO Figure - Marco Verch https://flic.kr/p/DseDts Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi... White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/... STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/... Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo ___________________________________________ References: Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content... De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs... Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722 Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564 Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.

How Much Food Is There On Earth?
Mar 22 2018 2 mins  
Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills! Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740 FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/ FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72. National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/ Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated). Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption' Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557. Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/ USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018; https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update) Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362 https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/


Is It Safe To Get Your DNA Tested?
Feb 20 2018 3 mins  
Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: youtube2018 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. Once it’s out of your body, your genetic information is valuable to a variety of people, but you can keep it safe(ish) with a few simple steps. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Personal Genetic Analysis: Direct-to-consumer DNA testing, usually through mail-in saliva samples. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism: A variation at a single spot on the genome that is present in some part of the population. Genotyping chip: A microarray that allows genetic testing companies to test a DNA sample for hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Health Care Fraud: A crime that usually involves misrepresenting medical information in order to make money. Targeted Advertising: The practice of placing ads based on consumer demographics or behavior. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act: A 2008 American law that prohibits health insurers and employers from using genetic information when making coverage or hiring decisions. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Melissa Gymrek, Amy L. McGuire, David Golan, Eran Halperin, Yaniv Erlich (2013). Identifying Personal Genomes by Surname Inference. Science. 339:6117 (321-324). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Joh, E. (2011). DNA Theft: Recognizing the Crime of Nonconsensual Genetic Collection and Testing. Boston University Law Review. 91:2 (666-700) Retrieved from: https://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archi... Tanner, A. (2017). Our Bodies, Our Data: How Companies Make Billions Selling Our Medical Records. Available at: https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?inde... Koerner, B. (2015). Your Relative’s DNA Could Turn You Into A Suspect. Wired. Retrieved from: https://www.wired.com/2015/10/familia... Pollack, A. (2015). Building a Face, and a Case, on DNA. New Yourk Times. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/sc... Cappos, Justin. (2017). Professor of Computer Science and Engineering, NYU. Personal Communication.

We Asked Bill Gates: Do You Need To Be Rich To Be Healthy?
Feb 14 2018 2 mins  
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2Cfph0j Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. No matter how wealthy a country is, there's a lot it can do to improve the health of its citizens. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Bill Gates Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Bill Gates & Emily Elert With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bolt, J., Timmer, M., & van Zanden, J. L. 2014. "GDP per capita since 1820”, in van Zanden, et al. (eds.), How Was Life?: Global Well-being since 1820, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264214262-7-en Life expectancy over time estimated from: https://github.com/open-numbers/ddf--gapminder--life_expectancy Countries that developed insurance systems found in: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/theimpactofhealthinsurance_fulltext.pdf Thanks also to Dr. Shyam Deshpande and Dr. Tracy Seimears

Why Electroshock Therapy Is Back
Feb 07 2018 2 mins  
Please support us on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth or as a YouTube Sponsor! Thanks to everyone who already does! Shocking the brain has come and gone as a medical treatment, but it’s currently resurging, as it often provides the best form of relief for severe depression and advanced Parkinson’s disease. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Electroshock therapy: the original name for treating severe depression with a series of brief electrical shocks to the brain Electroconvulsive therapy: the current name for electroshock therapy Deep brain stimulation: a treatment for advanced Parkinson’s that uses pulsed electrical signals to targeted brain regions ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Arlotti M, et al 2016. The adaptive deep brain stimulation challenge. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders 28: 12-17 Benabid AL, S Chabardes, J Mitrofanis, P Polla. 2009. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol. 8:67-81 Leiknes KA, Jarosh-von Schweder L, Høie B. 2012. Contemporary use and practice of electroconvulsive therapy worldwide. Brain and Behavior 2(3):283-344 Pagnin D, et al. 2004. Efficacy of ECT in Depression: A Meta-Analytic Review. J ECT 20:13-20 Sienaert P, K Vansteeland, K Demyttenaere, J Peuskens. 2010. Randomized comparison of ultra-brief bifrontal and unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: cognitive side-effects. J Affective Disorders 122:60-67 UK ECT Review Group, 2003. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 361, 799–808.

Why Our Favorite Crops Live Fast and Die Young
Jan 24 2018 2 mins  
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 We mostly grow annual plants because they reliably produce energy-rich seeds, which we like to eat. Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual: a plant that typically lives for a year or less Biennial: a plant that typically lives for two years Perennial: a plant that typically lives for multiple years ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: The Case Against Civilization: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/09/18/the-case-against-civilization _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Bruno van Wayenburg and Ever Salazar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bonser, S. P. (2013). High reproductive efficiency as an adaptive strategy in competitive environments. Functional Ecology, 27(4), 876-885. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12064/full Crews, T. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Crews, T. E., & DeHaan, L. R. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A response. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 500-515. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1008777 Friedman, J., & Rubin, M. J. (2015). All in good time: understanding annual and perennial strategies in plants. American journal of botany, 102(4), 497-499. http://www.amjbot.org/content/102/4/497.short Denison, R.F. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Milla, R. Personal Communication, Dec 2017. Pimentel, D., et al. (2012). Annual vs. perennial grain production. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 161, 1-9. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880912002058 Rees, M., & Long, M. J. (1992). Germination biology and the ecology of annual plants. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 484-508. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/1403/1/reesm8_Rees_and_Long_1992_Am_Nat.pdf Reich, P. B. (2014). The world‐wide ‘fast–slow’plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto. Journal of Ecology, 102(2), 275-301. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12211/full Smaje, C. (2015). The strong perennial vision: A critical review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(5), 471-499. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21683565.2015.1007200 Van Tassel, D. L., DeHaan, L. R., & Cox, T. S. (2010). Missing domesticated plant forms: can artificial selection fill the gap?. Evolutionary Applications, 3(5‐6), 434-452. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4571.2010.00132.x/full Vico, G. Personal Communication, Nov 2017. Vico, G., et al. (2016). Trade‐offs between seed output and life span–a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species. New Phytologist, 209(1), 104-114. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.13574/full Westoby, M. Personal Communication, Nov 2017.

A Disease's Guide to World Domination
Jan 09 2018 3 mins  
Get 3 weeks of free access to CuriosityStream by visiting http://curiositystream.com/minute and using the promo code "minute" There's something surprising that helps determine how damaging a disease is: distance. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Direct transmission: occurs when a pathogen is transmitted to a new host by physical or close contact Virulence: the degree of damage a pathogen causes its host _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Blanquart, F., et al. (2016). A transmission-virulence evolutionary trade-off explains attenuation of HIV-1 in Uganda. Elife 5: 5. de Roode, J.C., Yates, A.J., & Altizer, S. (2008). Virulence-transmission trade-offs and population divergence in virulence in a naturally occurring butterfly parasite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 7489-7494 Ewald, P.W. (1983). Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Reviews Ecology & Systematics 14: 465-485 Ewald, P.W. (1991). Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria. Epidemiology & Infection 106: 83-119. Ewald, P.W. (1991). Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence: with special reference to cholera, influenza, and AIDS. Human Nature 2: 1-30. Galvani, A.P. (2003) Epidemiology meets evolutionary ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 132-139. Lipsitch, M. & Moxon, E.R. (1997). Virulence and transmissibility of pathogens: what is the relationship? Trends in Microbiology 5: 31-37.


Why Do Birds Migrate Like This?
Dec 20 2017 2 mins  
Buy the book: "Where the Animals Go: Tracking Wildlife with Technology in 50 Maps and Graphics" at http://www.wheretheanimalsgo.com Migrating birds care more about the ease of their trip than the distance they travel, and that leads to some truly roundabout routes. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Migration: The seasonal movement of a population of animals from one area to another. Prevailing winds: Winds in a particular area that blow in a particular direction. Thermal: An upward current of warm air. Lift: A force that counteracts the weight of an object and holds it in the air. Flyway: A route regularly used by lots of migrating birds. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Arcadi García Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Horton, K., Van Doren, B., Stepanian, P.,Hochachka, W., Farnsworth, A., and Kelly, J. (2016). Nocturnally migrating songbirds drift when they can and compensate when they must. Scientific Reports 6, 1-8. Nature. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep21249 Kranstauber,B., Weinzierl, R., Wikelski, M., Safi, K. (2015). Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling. Ecology Letters. 18: 133. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12528/full Liechti, F. (2006). Birds: blowin’ by the wind.Journal of Ornithology. 47: 202–211. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-006-0061-9. Reddy, G., Celani, A., Sejnowski, T., and Vergassola, M. (2016). Learning to soar in turbulent environments. PNAS. 113(33):E4877-84. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27482099 Shamoun-Baranes, J., Leshem, Y., Yom-Tov, Y., and Liech, O. (2003). Differential use of thermal convection by soaring birds over central Israel. The Condor. 105:208-218. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1370541. Leshem, Yossi. (2017) Professor of Life Science, Tel-Aviv University. Personal Communication.

Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?
Dec 13 2017 3 mins  
Considering humans' increased impact on the environment, we may want to reconsider whether there is still a place in our legal system for the Act of God defense. Thanks to all our viewers and supporters for an incredible year of videos! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Act of God: A natural disaster that is outside of human influence or control, such that no one will be held responsible for the resulting damages. Reasonable precautions: The ordinary or usual precautions that a person would take to prevent damage from a natural disaster. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Learn about some of the damage done in the flood of 1903: https://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/flood-of-1903/17221 _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Melissa Hayes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Merritt Creamery Co. v. Atchison, T. & S. F. Ry. Co., 122 S.W. 322, 139 Mo. App. 149 (Mo. App., 1909). Herring, S. C., A. Hoell, M. P. Hoerling, J. P. Kossin, C. J. Schreck III, and P. A. Stott, Eds., 2016: Explaining Extreme Events of 2015 from a Climate Perspective. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (12), S1–S145, doi:10.1175/BAMS -ExplainingExtremeEvents2015.1. Trenberth, K. E., Fasullo, J. T., & Shepherd, T. G. (2015). Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change, 5(8), 725-730. doi:10.1038/nclimate2657. Stott, P. (2016). How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science, 352(6293), 1517-1518. doi:10.1126/science.aaf7271. Jill M. Fraley, Re-examining Acts of God, 27 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 669 (2010) Available at: h6p://digitalcommons.pace.edu/pelr/vol27/iss3/4. Loimer, H., & Guarnieri, M. (1996). Accidents and acts of God: a history of the terms. American Journal of Public Health, 86(1), 101-107. doi:10.2105/ajph.86.1.101

Why Pets Have Surprisingly Small Brains
Dec 06 2017 2 mins  
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth When we domesticate an animal species, their brains shrink and they freak out less. Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Domesticated animal: a species of animal bred by humans over generations to become nonreactive and gain characteristics suitable for life as a farm animal or pet Tame animal: an individual animal raised in a way that it has become less dangerous and frightened of people Feral animal: an animal that escapes from captivity or domestication (& regains some similar & some different characteristics compared to its pre-domesticated state) "Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies a creature to either to resist forcibly or escape Limbic system: the brain’s “panic button” - a system of nerves and networks near the bottom of the cortex that controls basic emotions (e.g. fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (e.g. hunger, sex, dominance) Telencephalon: the most developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting chiefly of the cerebral hemispheres, and the brain region that shrinks most in domesticated animals Domestication: a sustained multigenerational, mutualistic relationship in which one species (e.g. humans) assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another species (e.g. cows) in order to secure a more predictable supply of a resource of interest (e.g. milk/meat/traction), and through which the domesticated organisms gain advantage over individuals that remain outside this relationship (e.g. aurochs, which went extinct), thereby benefitting and often increasing the fitness of both species involved ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Brain Scoop video on brain size and intelligence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJW8jIDfP9E Russian Fox Domestication Experiment: https://goo.gl/5nWnXz What happens to domesticated animals & their brains when they escape back to the wild?: http://www.nature.com/news/when-chickens-go-wild-1.19195#/free%5C _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Keenan Parry & Ever Salazar (@unpuntocircular) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Agnvall, B. et al. 2017. Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2017.09.006 Eberhard, W. G., & Wcislo, W. T. 2011. Grade changes in brain-body allometry: morphological and behavioural correlates of brain size in miniature spiders, insects and other invertebrates. Advances in Insect Physiology, 40, 155. http://www.stri.si.edu/sites/publications/PDFs/2011_Eberhard_Wcislo_AdvIns_Physiol.pdf Kruska, D. C. 2005. On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization. Brain, behavior and evolution, 65(2), 73-108. https://goo.gl/J86NEd Kruska, D. C. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Marchetti, M. P., & Nevitt, G. A. 2003. Effects of hatchery rearing on brain structures of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environmental biology of Fishes, 66(1), 9-14. https://goo.gl/GL6LWG Marchetti, M. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Wright, D. Personal Communication, Oct 2017. Zeder, M. A. 2012. Pathways to animal domestication. Biodiversity in agriculture: Domestication, evolution and sustainability, 227-259. https://goo.gl/2xWSB8 Zeder, M. A. 2015. Core questions in domestication research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(11), 3191-3198. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3191.full Zeder, M. A. Personal Communication, Oct 2017.

Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?
Nov 24 2017 3 mins  
Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.

What Are Brain Waves?
Nov 07 2017 2 mins  
This video was sponsored by "Robot-Proof", written by Northeastern University's President, Joseph E. Aoun. Learn more here: https://goo.gl/uF5Kx8 Thank you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Even the parts of our brains that don't control physical movement show a lot of rhythm, and that might be integral to how our brains work. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: neural oscillation: better known as a "brainwave," a neural oscillation is repetitive, often rhythmic activity in the central nervous system. neurons can sync up with the help of pacemaker cells or structure, or through entrainment. entrainment: the ability of tons and tons of neurons to quickly sync up is due to something called entrainment – here's a cool demo of essentially how that works: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl2aYFv_978 central pattern generator: neural networks that produce rhythmic, patterned electrical outputs. CPGs are usually relatively simple neural circuits and are responsible for virtually all the rhythmic motions you see in nature, from jellyfish swimming to human breathing. while we often think of our brains as reaction machines – like, we touch something hot and quickly pull away – central pattern generators don't need any stimulus to work. you can pull them out of an animal and put them in a petri dish and the neurons will still fire with the same rhythms. feature binding: when you see your cat and you know right away it's your cat...well, somehow, your brain is putting together all kinds of information about the object's shape, size, color, motion, position in your field of vision, and lots of other contextual clues to make that happen. neuroscientists call this "feature binding," and neural oscillations may be key to pulling it off. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Snake Crawling - BigfootHD https://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-2582720-stock-footage-snake-crawling.html Greyhound running - Objectivity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iq_Oj6qzeIU Hummingbird - Smarter Every Day https://youtu.be/1VA8v1btKdQ?t=73 ___________________________________________ References: Buzsaki, G. Personal Communication, October 2017. Buzsaki, G. (2006) Rhythms of the Brain. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gyorgy_Buzsaki/publication/223130267_Rhythms_of_The_Brain/links/00b4952bb0ae609ac9000000/Rhythms-of-The-Brain.pdf Cabron, J. Personal Communcation, October 2017. Engel, A.K. and Fries, P. and Singer, W. (2001) Dynamic predictions: Oscillations and synchrony in top–down processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, pp 704-716. Retrieved from http://www.dankalia.com/science/neu127.pdf Getting, P.A. (1989) Emerging Principles Governing the Operation of Neural Networks. Annual Review of Neuroscience. Vol. 12:185-204 Llinas, R. Personal Communication, October 2017. Lisman, J. and Buzsaki, G. (2008) A Neural Coding Scheme Formed by the Combined Function of Gamma and Theta Oscillations. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Volume 34:5, pp 974–980. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/34/5/974/1881304 Lisman, J. Personal Communication, October 2017. Marder, E and Calabrese, R.L. (1996) Principles of rhythmic motor pattern generation. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), pp 687-717. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1900/8ec50b0d0bcff24438c9a0eb57f9e33f7a85.pdf Marder, E. Personal Communication, October 2017. Singer, W. Personal Communication, October 2017.

Why Bird Penises Are So Weird
Oct 25 2017 3 mins  
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Male birds have the largest genital diversity of any class of animals because their sex chromosomes make it easy to pass male-helping mutations down the line. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Sex chromosome: A chromosome involved in determining the sex of an individual. Cloaca: A posterior orifice that serves as the only exit for the gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts. Mutation: An alteration in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Sexually-selected Trait: A trait based on a mutation that confers a reproductive advantage. BMP4: A protein whose presence halts the growth of bird penises in the egg. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: An article from The Week about some of the strangest penises in the animal kingdom: http://theweek.com/articles/474417/12-weirdest-animal-penises-earth-updated _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brennan, P. and Prum, R. (2015). Mechanisms and Evidence of Genital Coevolution: The Roles of Natural Selection,Mate Choice, and Sexual Conflict. 1-21. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from: http://cshperspectives.cshlp.org/content/7/7/a017749.abstract Brennan, P. (2013). Genital Evolution: Cock-a-Doodle-Don’t. Current Biology. R523-R525. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213004430 Brennan, P., Birkhead, T., Zyskowski, K., van der Waagand, J., and Prum, R. (2008). Independent evolutionary reductions of the phallus in basal birds. Journal of Avian Biology, 39: 487-492. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04610.x/abstract. Briskie, J. and Montgomerie, R. (1997). Sexual selection and the intromittent organ of birds. Journal of Avian Biology. 28: 73-86. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3677097?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Herrera, A., Brennan, P., and Cohn, M. (2014). Development of Avian External Genitalia: Interspecific Differences and Sexual Differentiation of the Male and Female Phallus. Sexual Development. 9: 43-52. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25011524. Reinhold, K. (1998). Sex linkage among genes controlling sexually selected traits. Sexual Selection. 44:1-7. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002650050508. Image Credits: Mandarin Ducks - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pair_of_mandarin_ducks.jpg Gorillas - Based on photo by Wikimedia user No escape https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG Lake Duck Penis - Kevin McCracken (Published in Nature 2001)

Where Do Our Drugs Come From?
Oct 12 2017 2 mins  
The incredible chemical weapon-making abilities of fungi, bacteria, and plants have created an incredible array of compounds that are useful to humans. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Bioprospecting: the systematic search for and development of new sources of chemical compounds, genes, micro-organisms, macro-organisms, and other valuable products from nature ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Bills, G.F. and Gloer, J.B. (2016) Biologically Active Secondary Metabolites from the Fungi. Microbiology Spectrum 4(6): 6 Cragg, G.M. and Newman, D.J. (2005) Biodiversity: A continuing source of novel drug leads. Pure and Appled Chemistry 77: 7–24 Mazid, M., Khan, T.A. and Mohammad, F. (2011) Role of secondary metabolites in defense mechanisms of plants. Biology and Medicine 3(2): 232–249. Newman, D.J. and Cragg, G.M. (2016) Natural Products as Sources of New Drugs from 1981 to 2014. Journal of Natural Products 79: 629-661 O’Brien, J. and Wright, G.D. (2011) An ecological perspective of microbial secondary metabolism. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 22:552–558

Why Do Female Hyenas Have Pseudo-Penises?!
Oct 04 2017 3 mins  
Female hyenas don't have penises, but it sure looks like they do - and we still aren't quite sure why. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Pseudopenis: a structure that resembles a penis but is developmentally (and functionally) different Masculinization: the process by which female genitalia is made to appear more like male genitalia ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE Hyena having a baby at the Buffalo Zoo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7rd7TvoPtWM _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Spotted Hyenas Mating - Olivia Spagnuolo Image Credits: Female Spotted Hyena - Kate Yoshida Spotted Hyena Pseudopenis - Kay Holekamp Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) - Flickr user Jean https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3091611374 Brown Hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) - Bernard DUPONT https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/6472940707/ Proteles cristatus - Dominik Käuferle https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Proteles_cristatus1.jpg Squirrel monkey - Wikimedia user Megapixie https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Squirrel_monkey-_fuji.jpg Ring tailed lemur - Wikimedia user Sannse https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ring_tailed_lemur_and_twins.jpg Fossa - Ran Kirlian https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cryptoprocta_Ferox.JPG Binturong - Tassilo Rau https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Binturong_in_Overloon.jpg ___________________________________________ References: Cunha GR, Risbridger G, Wang H, Place NJ, Grumbach M, Cunha TJ, Weldele M, Conley AJ, Barcellos D, Agarwal S, Bhargava A, Drea C, Hammond GL, Siiteri P, Coscia EM, McPhaul MJ, Baskin LS, Glickman SE. (2014) Development of the external genitalia: perspectives from the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Differentiation. 87(1-2):4-22. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030146811300087X?via%3Dihub Frank LG (1997) Evolution of genital masculinization: why do female hyenas have such a large 'penis'? Trends Ecol. Evol. 12:58-62. http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/S0169-5347(96)10063-X Frank LG and Glickman SE (1994) Giving birth through a penile clitoris: parturition and dystocia in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta). J. Zool. 234:659–665. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04871.x/abstract Frank LG, Weldele ML, and Glickman SE (1995) Masculinization costs in hyaenas. Nature 377:584–585. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v377/n6550/abs/377584b0.html?foxtrotcallback=true Glickman SE, Cunha GR, Drea CM, Conley AJ and Place NJ (2006) Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena. rends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 17 (9): 349–356. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043276006001767 Holekamp, KE, personal communication. August and September 2017. Muller MN and Wrangham R (2002) Sexual Mimicry in Hyenas. The Quarterly Review of Biology 77 (1):3-16. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/339199?journalCode=qrb


Why Farming is Broken
Sep 27 2017 3 mins  
Thanks to the Land Institute for sponsoring this video! To learn more about their work, visit https://landinstitute.org/ To feed everyone in the future, we may need to disrupt 10,000 years of farming practices and turn agriculture into a closed system. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Annual plant: living for a year or less, perpetuating itself by seed Perennial plant: living for several years Polyculture: the simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals Natural systems agriculture: cropping systems based on processes found in nature Agroforestry: land use management that combines the cultivation of trees/shrubs with crops/pasture to create more productive and sustainable land-use systems Alley cropping: planting agricultural crops between rows of trees or shrubs ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: Alley cropping: https://nac.unl.edu/documents/agroforestrynotes/an12ac01.pdf Agroforestry: http://www.fao.org/forestry/agroforestry/89997/en/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Baker, B. 2017. Can Modern Agriculture Be Sustainable? Perennial polyculture holds promise. BioScience, 67(4), 325-331. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix018 Crews, T. E. 2016. Closing the Gap between Grasslands and Grain Agriculture. Kan. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 26, 274. https://goo.gl/d7BGsb Dawson, C. J., & Hilton, J. 2011. Fertiliser availability in a resource-limited world: Production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy, 36, S14-S22. https://goo.gl/8dMuP1 Famiglietti, J. S. 2014. The global groundwater crisis. Nature Climate Change, 4(11), 945-948. http://aquadoc.typepad.com/files/jfam_global_gw_crisis.pdf Kantar, M. B. et al. 2016. Perennial grain and oilseed crops. Annual review of plant biology, 67, 703-729. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-043015-112311 Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. http://goo.gl/Si9E6g

Why Is Your Grandma So Short?
Sep 22 2017 2 mins  
Learn more about the Goalkeepers report from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation here: http://gates.ly/2fb6CNH Nutrition during the first few years of life has a huge impact on adult height, and since nutrition has been getting better over time, humanity - including your family - is getting taller. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Osteoporosis: Condition in which bones lose density and break down. Stunting: Impaired growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition. Malabsorption: Condition in which the intestine can’t absorb enough nutrients and fluids. Food insecurity: Lacking reliable access to sufficient and nutritious food. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: More info on the Global Goals for Sustainable Development: http://www.globalgoals.org/#the-goals _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: World Health Organization (2014). WHA Global Nutrition Targets 2025: Stunting Policy Brief. 1-10. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/globaltargets_stunting_policybrief.pdf Caulfield, L., Richard, S., Rivera, J., Musgrove, P. and Black, R. (2006). Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 551-570. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11761/ NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. (2016). A Century of Trends in Adult Human Height. eLife. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/13410 Kang, H., Kreuels, B., Adjei, O., Krumkamp, R., May, J., and Small, D. (2013). The Causal Effect Of Malaria On Stunting: A Mendelian Randomization And Matching Approach. International Journal of Epidemiology. 42:1390–1398. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23925429 Sorkin, J., Muller, G., and Andres, R. (1999) Longitudinal Change in Height of Men and Women: Implications for Interpretation of the Body Mass Index. American Journal of Epidemiology. 150: 969-977. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10547143

Why Do India And China Have So Many People?
Aug 31 2017 2 mins  
India and China have so many people today because they’re good for farming and big, but they’ve always been that way, so they’ve actually had a huge proportion of Earth’s people for thousands of years. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: A very detailed map of world population density: https://populationexplorer.com/Info about world population growth: https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth/ _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: ___________________________________________ References: Eraly, A., Khan, Y., Michell, G. & Saran, M. 2008. India. DK Publishing, New York.Gidwani, V.K., April 2017, personal communication.Goldewijk, K.K., Beusen, A., & Janssen, P. 2010. Long-term dynamic modeling of global population and built-up area in a spatially explicit way: HYDE 3.1. The Holocene, 20(4), 565-573. https://goo.gl/BuwJLQGoldewijk, K.K., Arthur Beusen, Jonathan Doelman, and Elke Stehfest. "New anthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene; HYDE 3.2.” Unpublished manuscript. https://goo.gl/z73PNrGoldewijk, K.K., April 2017, personal communication.Maddison, A. 2006. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD. https://www.stat.berkeley.edu/~aldous/157/Papers/world_economy.pdf Roberts, E., March 2017, personal communication.Ruggles, S., March 2017, personal communication.Stearns, P. N. (Ed.). 2001. The encyclopedia of world history: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, chronologically arranged. Houghton Mifflin. Chicago.Thanks also to Deepak Ray, Jamie Gerber, Emily Cassidy, and Ryan Loomis.

Why Is Syrup Sticky?
Aug 24 2017 3 mins  
Give Blinkist a try! https://www.blinkist.com/MinuteEarth What exactly makes sugary syrups so sticky, when neither water nor sugar is very sticky on its own? Support MinuteEarth on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Ever Salazar Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Brown, T.L, LeMay, H.E., Bursten, B.E. (2006). Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids. In Chemistry, The Central Science 10th edition. Retrieved from: http://alpha.chem.umb.edu/chemistry/ch115/Mridula/CHEM%20116/documents/chapter_11au.pdf Elert, M., Personal Communication, July 2017. Husband, T. (2014). The Sweet Science of Candymaking. Retrieved from: https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/past-issues/archive-2014-2015/candymaking.html Longinotti, M.P. & Corti, H.R. (2008) Viscosity of concentrated sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions including the supercooled regime. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 37: 1503-1516. Molinero, V., Cagin, T., Goddard, W.A. (2003) Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions. Chemical Physics Letters, 377:469–474. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8b49/ce63d9430af305c87c1dadfa0ec9bc646461.pdf Wang, L.P., Personal Communication, February 2017. Xia, J., & Case, D. A. (2012). Sucrose in Aqueous Solution Revisited: 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Direct and Indirect Dipolar Coupling Analysis. Biopolymers, 97(5), 276–288. http://doi.org/10.1002/bip.22017 ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Sugar - Melissa Wiese https://www.flickr.com/photos/42dreams/2452033439/ Sugar beet field - Gilles San Martin https://www.flickr.com/photos/sanmartin/4799481326/ Sugar Cubes - David Pacey https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/7164573186/

Our Definition For “Moon” Is Broken (Collab. w/ MinutePhysics)
Aug 15 2017 3 mins  
Watch Henry’s MinutePhysics video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NucdlR9EGbA MinuteEarth & MinutePhysics are on Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth & http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics It’s becoming harder and harder to categorize moons as moons. ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Moon: a natural satellite of a satellite of a star. Satellite: A celestial body orbiting a larger celestial body. Orbit: The path followed by one object revolving around another object under the influence of gravity. Barycenter: The center of mass that two or more bodies orbit around. Binary System: A system in which two similarly sized object orbit the same barycenter. Hydrostatic equilibrium: Roundness that occurs when gravity is balanced by a pressure gradient force. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: That’s no moon … it’s a space station! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGp_5gOww0E. And here's a tidy illustrated difference between geocentrism and heliocentrism: http://www.malinc.se/math/trigonometry/geocentrismen.php _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Norton, J. (2008) Could a moon have moons? Popular Science. Retrieved from: http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2008-04/could-moon-have-moons H. A. Weaver, S. A. Stern, M. J. Mutchler, A. J. Steffl, M. W. Buie, W. J. Merline, J. R. Spencer, E. F. Young, L. A. Young (2006). The Discovery of Two New Satellites of Pluto. Nature. 439: 943-945. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7079/abs/nature04547.html?foxtrotcallback=true Tiscareno, M., Burns, J., Sremcevi, M., Beurle, K., Hedman, M. Copper, N., Milano, A., Evans, M., Porco, C., Spitale, J., and WEiss, J. (2010) Physical Characteristics And Non-Keplerian Orbital Motion Of “Propeller” Moons Embedded In Saturn’s Rings. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 718: 92-96. Retrieved from: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L92 Spahn, F., and Schmidt, J. (2006) Saturn’s Bared Mini-Moons. Nature, 440: 30-31. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7084/full/440614a.html

UPSIDE-DOWN Rivers On Mars?! (Response to MinutePhysics)
Aug 02 2017 3 mins  
Get your FREE 2-month Skillshare trial: http://skl.sh/minuteearth2 The "Mountain or Valley?" illusion makes our brains turn valleys inside out. But inside-out valleys are a real thing, both on Earth and on Mars. Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video, and to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Inverted relief: a topographic feature, such as an old riverbed, that has reversed its elevation relative to other features. Duricrust: a hard mineral crust formed at or near the surface of soil in semiarid regions by the evaporation of groundwater. Geomorphology: the study of the physical features of the surface of the earth and their relation to its geological structures. Exhumed paleochannel: a remnant of an inactive river or stream channel that has been either filled or buried by younger sediment, and then subsequently uncovered by erosion. Erosion: the action of surface processes, including wind and water, that move dirt and rock from their original location to some other place. Capillary action: the tendency of a liquid in a capillary tube or absorbent material to rise or fall as a result of surface tension. Mineral precipitation: when dissolved compounds in a solution bond together to form a solid (a simple example is how dissolved sodium and chloride ions come together to form salt as water evaporates) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) & Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Yardangs and Ridges of the Edge of Aeolis Planum - NASA JPL University of Arizona https://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_006683_1740 Raised Footprints - Alan Light https://www.flickr.com/photos/alan_light/5904493388/ _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion by MinutePhysics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7C318DGB38 Inverted Relief at Green River, Utah https://www.google.com/maps/@38.8744077,-110.2558884,867m/data=!3m1!1e3 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, J., July 2016, personal communication. Clarke, J. D., & Stoker, C. R. (2011). Concretions in exhumed and inverted channels near Hanksville Utah: implications for Mars. International Journal of Astrobiology, 10(03), 161-175. doi:10.1017/s1473550411000048 Harris, D.R. (1980). Exhumed paleochannels in the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain formation near Green river. Utah: Brigham Young Univ. Geol. Stud. 27, 51–66. Malin, M. C. (2003). Evidence for Persistent Flow and Aqueous Sedimentation on Early Mars. Science, 302(5652), 1931-1934. doi:10.1126/science.1090544 Miller, R. P. (1937). Drainage Lines in Bas-Relief. The Journal of Geology, 45(4), 432-438. doi:10.1086/624550 Pain, C.P & Ollier, C.D. (1996). Regolith stratigraphy: principles and problems. Journal of Australian Geology & Geophysics, 16(3), 197-202. Pain, C., Clarke, J., & Thomas, M. (2007). Inversion of relief on Mars. Icarus, 190(2), 478-491. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.017 Pain, C., July 2016, personal communication.

TRANSPARENT Solar Panels?!
Jul 27 2017 2 mins  
Infinitesimally small quantum dots can turn a window into a see-through solar panel! Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Solar window: a window that functions like an ordinary window but also generates power like a solar panel Nanoparticle (also called nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal): a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. These tiny objects often have characteristics that differ from larger versions of the same material. Quantum dots (QD): tiny nanoparticles of some kind of semiconducting material, only several nanometers in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. The QDs embedded in solar windows can absorb radiation largely in short wavelengths and re-emit in longer wavelengths; useful for capturing solar energy and successfully tranferring it to the solar cells on the edges of the pane. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter/Emily Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Thumbnail: R. Lunt, MSU. _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Bradshaw, L. R., Knowles, K. E., McDowall, S. & Gamelin, D. R. Nanocrystals for luminescent solar concentrators. Nano Lett. 15, 1315–1323 (2015). Meinardi, F., Ehrenberg, S., Dhamo, L., Carulli, F., Mauri, M., Bruni, F., Simonutti, R., Kortshagen, U. and Brovelli, S., 2017. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots. Nature Photonics, 11(3), pp.177-185. Meinardi, F. et al. Highly efficient large-area colourless luminescent solar concentrators using heavy-metal-free colloidal quantum dots. Nat. Nanotech.10, 878–885 (2015). Yang, C, R. R. Lunt. Limits of Visibly Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators. Adv. Opt. Mat., 5, 8, 1600851, 2017. Zhao Y., G. Meek, B. Levine, and R. R. Lunt, “Near-Infrared Harvesting Transparent Luminescent Solar Concentrators”. Adv. Opt. Mat., 2, 606, 2014.

Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena
Jul 19 2017 3 mins  
Thanks to spotted hyenas’ unusual social structure, males experience a tough life of solitude, harassment, and deprivation. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Sex role reversed species: a species in which males and females exhibit roles other than what might be expected based on other aspects of their biology and mating systems ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Hyenas feeding - Kate Yoshida Image Credits: Scarface - Kate Yoshida _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A blog by researchers currently studying spotted hyenas in Kenya's Masai Mara: http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/ ___________________________________________ References: Chepko-Sade, B. D. & Z. T. Halpin. 1987. Mammalian dispersal patterns: the effects of social stucture on population genetics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. Holekamp, K.E. & Smale, L. (2000) Feisty females and meek males: reproductive strategies in the spotted hyena. In Reproduction in Context. K. Wallen and J. Schneider (Eds). MIT Press. Cambridge. MA. Pp. 257-285. Kruuk H. 1972. The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smale, L., Nunes, S., and Holekamp, K.E. (1997) Sexually dimorphic dispersal in mammals: patterns, causes and consequences. Advances in the Study of Behavior 26: 181-250. Strauss, E., February 2017, personal communication. Turner, J., June 2017, personal communication. Van Horn, R.C., McElhinny, T.L. & Holekamp, K. E. (2003) Age estimation and dispersal in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Journal of Mammalogy 84: 1019-1030. Watts, H. E. & Holekamp, K. E. (2007) Hyena societies. Current Biology 17: R657-R660.


Invasion Of The Earthworms!
Jul 12 2017 2 mins  
Worms cause major changes to ecosystems, but those changes aren’t always new. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Invasive species: A non-native species that causes harm to the ecosystem. Biome: A large, naturally occurring community of flora and fauna. Duff layer: The moderately to highly decomposed organic material between the leaf litter and the soil. Seedling: A young plant less than one meter high. Sapling: A young tree that’s bigger than a seedling. Graminoids: Herbaceous plants and grasses. Coevolution: The process that occurs when two closely associated species influence each other’s evolutionary paths. Savanna: A grassy plain with scattered tree coverage. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ References: Dylan Craven, Madhav P. Thakur, Erin K. Cameron, Lee E. Frelich, Robin Beauséjour, Robert B. Blair, Bernd Blossey, James Burtis, Amy Choi, Andrea Dávalos, Timothy J. Fahey, Nicholas A. Fisichelli, Kevin Gibson, I. Tanya Handa, Kristine Hopfensperger, Scott R. Loss, Victoria Nuzzo, John C. Maerz, Tara Sackett, Bryant C. Scharenbroch, Sandy M. Smith, Mark Vellend, Lauren G. Umek, Nico Eisenhauer (2016). The unseen invaders: introduced earthworms as drivers of change in plant communities in North American forests (a meta-analysis). Global Change Biology. 1-10. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13446/full Sonja Migge-Kleian, Mary Ann McLean, John C. Maerz, and Liam Heneghan (2006). The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms. Biological Invasions. 8:6 (1275-1285). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-006-9021-9 Alexander M.Roth, Timothy J.S.Whitfeld, Alexandra G. Lodge, Nico Eisenhauer, Lee E. Frelich· and Peter B. Reich (2015). Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica). Oecologia. 178: 219:230. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481818 Hendrit, Paul (Editor). 2007. Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive Species. Wackett, Adrian. (2017). Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.

Why So Many Meteorites Come From The Same Place
Jul 06 2017 3 mins  
Because of space physics, one faraway asteroid is likely the progenitor of almost a third of all the meteorites on Earth. Thanks to Skillshare for sponsoring this video: skl.sh/MinuteEarth Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Asteroid: A rocky body smaller than a planet that is orbiting the sun.Meteoroid: A smaller rocky body moving in the solar system.Meteor: A meteoroid that has entered the Earth’s atmosphere.Meteorite: A meteor that hits the Earth.Orbital resonance: A force that occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, because of the length of their relative orbits. Kirkwood Gap: A dip in the distribution of main belt asteroids that correspond to the locations of orbital resonances with Jupiter. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Jorge Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A terrifying but fascinating look at the destructive power of potential meteorites: http://www.purdue.edu/impactearth/ ___________________________________________ References: Burbine, T., McCoy, T., Meibom, A., Royer, C., Gladman, B., and Keil, K. (2002). Meteoritic Parent Bodies: Their Number and Identification. Asteroids III. 653-667. Retrieved from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002aste.book..653B Farinella, P., Gonczi, R., Froeschle, Ch., and Froeschle, C. (1993). The Injection of Asteroid Fragments into Resonances. Icarus. 101: 174-187. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001910358371016X Fieber-Beyer, S., Gaffey, M., Bottke, W., and Hardersen, P. (2015). Potentially hazardous Asteroid 2007 LE: Compositional link to the black chondrite Rose City and Asteroid (6) Hebe. Icarus. 250: 430-437. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514007088 Gaffey, M. and Gilbert, S. (1998). Asteroid 6 Hebe: The probable parent body of the H-type ordinary chondrites and the IIE iron meteorites. Meteoritics and Planetary Science. 33: 1281-1295. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1945-5100.1998.tb01312.x/abstract Vokrouhlicky, D., and Farinella, P. (2000). Efficient delivery of meteorites to the Earth from a wide range of asteroid parent bodies. Nature. 407: 606-608. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v407/n6804/full/407606a0.html Moons, M. and Morbidelli, A. (1995). Secular Resonances in Mean Motion Commensurabilities: The 4/1, 3/1, 5/2, and 7/3 Cases. Icarus. 114: 33-50. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001910358571041X Burbine, Thomas. (2017). Assistant Professor of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts. Personal Communication.

What Nuclear Bombs Taught Us About Whales
Jun 21 2017 2 mins  
A monitoring system developed to listen for secret nuclear tests mostly hears other events happening all around Earth. Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: www.ctbto.org Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Infrasound: sound waves too low in frequency for humans to hear. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 0.02 to 4Hz Hydroacoustic: having to do with underwater sounds. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 1-100 Hz Seismic: oscillation waves in the earth, often caused by earthquakes or other tectonic activity. The CTBTO stations detect frequencies of 0.02-16 Hz ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Animals can detect infrasound: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2004/12/surviving_the_tsunami.html A Time-Lapse Map of Every Nuclear Explosion Since 1945: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLCF7vPanrYSound travels 1000s of miles in the ocean’s SOFAR channel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOFAR_channel ___________________________________________ References: Sounds in the video that were recorded by CTBTO stations:0:32 Kasatoshi volcano eruption in August 2008, detected 2100km away at infrasound station on mainland Alaska. Sped up 500x https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasatochi_Island0:35 Explosion of Antares rocket in October 2014, detected 1100km away at Bermuda infrasound station. Sped up 150x https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cygnus_CRS_Orb-3 and video: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Antares_Fails_to_Reach_Orbit_with_Cygnus_CRS-3_after_Rocket_Explodes.webm 0:37 Ship engine detected June 1 2017 by hydroacoustic station. Sped up 16x0:40 Waves hitting an iceberg and causing it to vibrate like a cymbal in July 2010. Detected by hydroacoustic station off of Western Australia. Sped up 16x1:01 Whale call Feb 18 2017, detected by hydroacoustic station. Sped up 16x1:08 Chelyabinsk meteor airburst February 15 2013, detected by infrasound station 650km away in Kazakhstan. Sped up 135x1:39 Earthquake Jan 2 2017, detected by infrasound station. Sped up 16x2:00 Sound with unknown cause, detected by hydroacoustic station. March 25 2017. Sped up 16xReferencesBrown, P. G., et al. 2013. A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors. Nature, 503(7475), 238-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12741Graham, G. May 2017, Personal communicationHarabalus, G. May 2017, personal communicationLeBras, R. May 2017, personal communicationMialle P., May 2017, personal communicationMiksis-Old, J. May 2017, personal communicationNielsen, P., May 2017, personal communicationLe Pichon, A., et al. 2013. The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 40(14), 3732-3737. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50619/full

Why Does Wine Make Your Mouth Feel Dry?
Jun 15 2017 2 mins  
Check out our new website! https://www.minuteearth.com/ Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this video. http://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Astringent plant chemicals called tannins bind proteins on mucous membrane and skin, generating a prickly, puckery mouthfeel from foods and letting us “tan” skins into leather. ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Tannin: a yellow or brownish chemical present in some plant tissues, used in leather production and ink manufacture, and a contributor to the sensation of astringency Astringency: the sensation caused by the contraction of body tissues due to tannins, often called “mouthfeel” Polyphenol: a chemical compound containing more than one phenolic hydroxyl group, of which tannins are a major group Phenolic: a chemical compound with a hydroxyl group (oxygen & hydrogen) linked directly to a benzene ring ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our new website! https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Bajec, M. R., & Pickering, G. J. 2008. Astringency: mechanisms and perception. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 48(9), 858-875. https://goo.gl/XLR0JY Barbehenn, R. V., & Constabel, C. P. 2011. Tannins in plant–herbivore interactions. Phytochemistry, 72(13), 1551-1565. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031942211000690 Covington, A. D. 1997. Modern tanning chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews, 26(2), 111-126. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/1997/cs/cs9972600111 Covington, A. D. 2009. Tanning chemistry: the science of leather. Royal Society of Chemistry. Covington, A., Mar 2017, personal communication. Gawel, R. 1998. Red wine astringency: a review. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 4(2), 74-95. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-0238.1998.tb00137.x/full Lesschaeve, I. & A.C. Noble. 2005. Polyphenols: factors influencing their sensory properties and their effects on food and beverage preferences. The American journal of clinical nutrition 81, no. 1: 330S-335S. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/1/330S.full Siebert, K., Mar 2017, personal communication.

This Is Not A Bee
May 31 2017 2 mins  
Thanks to Dollar Shave Club for sponsoring this video. Get your first month of the Executive Razor with Dr. Carver’s Shave Butter for only $5 at http://www.dollarshaveclub.com/minuteearth It can be hard to distinguish bees from all the other insects out there that look like bees. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Mullerian mimicry: a type of mimicry in which two or more animals with defenses develop similar appearances as a shared protective device Batesian mimicry: a type of mimicry in which an animal with no defenses is protected by its resemblance to an animal capable of defense ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A collection of "bees" that aren't bees: http://notabee.tumblr.com/ ___________________________________________ References: Brower J.V.Z. & Brower L.P., (1965). Experimental studies of mimicry. 8. Further investigations of honeybees (Apis mellifera) and their dronefly mimics (Eristalis spp.). American Naturalist 99:173–187. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2459113.pdf Dyer, F., Jan 2017, personal communication. Franks, D. W. and Noble, J., (2002). The origins of mimicry rings. Standish, R. K., Bedau, M. A. and Abbass, H. A.(eds.) In Artificial Life VIII: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Artificial Life. MIT Press., pp. 186-191. http://alife8.alife.org/proceedings/sub2852.pdf Pasteur, G., (1982). A classificatory review of mimicry systems. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics, 13: 169–199. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001125?journalCode=ecolsys.1 Rettenmeyer, C.W., (1970). Insect Mimicry. Annual Review of Entomology 15: 43-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.15.010170.000355. Wilson, J., Jan 2017, personal communication. ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Honey bee (Apis mellifera) - Charles James Sharp https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Honey_bee_(Apis_mellifera).jpg Sugar bag bee - Graham Wise https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tetragonula_carbonaria_(14521993792).jpg Agapostemon virescens - Susan Ellis https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Agapostemon_virescens.jpg Amegilla cingulata bee - Chiswick Chap https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amegilla_cingulata_on_long_tube_of_Acanthus_ilicifolius_flower.jpg Drone fly (Eristalis tenax) - Francis C. Franklin https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eristalis_tenax_and_flowers.jpg Eumeninae Wasp - Joaquim Alves Gaspar https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wasp_August_2007-3.jpg Sesia apiformis - Gyorgy Csoka https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sesia_apiformis_adult1.jpg Lunate Blister Beetle - Bernard DUPONT https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/12748380493/ Plain Lacewing (Cethosia hypsea) caterpillar - Bernard Dupont https://www.flickr.com/photos/berniedup/22723162703 Nymph of Green Milkweed Locust (Phymateus viridipes) - Bernard DUPONT https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nymph_of_Green_Milkweed_Locust_(Phymateus_viridipes)_(13983971884).jpg Eristalis tenax - Wilder Kaiser https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Eristalis_tenax_01Aug2009.jpg Yellow Jacket Wasp - Wikimedia user Bombman356 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yellow_jacket_wasp.jpg

Why Apple Pie Isn't American
May 24 2017 3 mins  
Join our Reddit AskScience discussion at https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/6d3a4b/discussion_minuteearths_newest_video_on_the/ Buy the map & T-shirts at our store: http://dftba.com/MinuteEarth Our diets are more global than we realize, because our common food crops and animals were domesticated far away in diverse locations. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling here: Food: a nutritious substance we eat or drink to maintain life and growth Domestication: a multi-generational process in which one group of organisms manages the reproduction and care of, and changes, another type of organism, typically to secure a more predictable supply of resources (e.g. humans with food crops and animals) Centers of origin: the locations where humans domesticated a lot of crops and animals for food, often where lots of wild relatives lived Centers of diversity: a more recent concept recognizing that high concentrations of food plant and animal varieties and related wild species aren’t always located where the plants and animals were initially domesticated ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Explore the geographic origins of our food crops with these interactive charts: http://blog.ciat.cgiar.org/origin-of-crops/ How much do countries benefit from one another’s crop diversity?: https://goo.gl/4mB5Mt ___________________________________________ References: Khoury, C.K. et al. 2016. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide. Proc. R. Soc. B 283(1832): 20160792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0792 Khoury, C.K. et al. 2014. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security. PNAS 111(11): 4001-4006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313490111 McGee, H. 2004. On food and cooking: the science and lore of the kitchen. Simon and Schuster.

Why Don't Sled Dogs Ever Get Tired?
May 03 2017 2 mins  
Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this video! https://squarespace.com/minuteearth Sled dogs are the best endurance athletes in the world thanks to a weird quirk in their metabolism. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Glycolysis: The process by which glycogen is broken down into energy. Anaerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. ATP: The principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. Baseline Vital Signs: A subject’s temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, pain, and pulse oximetry. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Skunk Bear on the Human Vs. Horse Marathon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vS2YVN0OAdc ___________________________________________ References: McDougall, C. (2011). Born To Run. McKenzie, M., Holbrook, T., Williamson, T., Royer, C., Valberg, S. ,Hinchcliff, K., Jose-Cunilleras, J., Nelson, S., Willard, M., and Davis, M. (2005). Recovery of Muscle Glycogen Concentrations in Sled Dogs during Prolonged Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37(8). 1307-1312. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118576 Poole, D. and Erickson, H. (2011). Highly Athletic Terrestrial Mammals: Horses and Dogs. Comprehensive Physiology. 6:57. 1-37. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737162 Gerth, N., Redman, P., Speakman, J., Jackson, S., and Stark, J.M. (2010). Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs. Journal of Comparative Physiology. 180: 577-589. Retrieved from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012661 Miller, B., Drake, J., Peelor, F.,, Biela, L., Geor, R., Hinchcliff, K., Davis, M., Hamilton, K. (2015). Participation in a 1000-mile race increases the oxidation of carbohydrate in Alaskan sled dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology. 118(12):1502-1509. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150223 McKenzie, Ericka. (2017). Professor of large animal internal medicine at the Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Personal Communication.

Why Don’t Sheep Shrink In The Rain?
Apr 26 2017 2 mins  
We appreciate your support on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Getting wet isn’t REALLY what makes wool shrink; it merely exacerbates the friction between the wool fibers, which is stronger in one direction than another, so when agitated in the washer or dryer, they migrate in relation to each other in a process called “felting.” ___________________________________________ To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Fiber: a threadlike structure forming part of the muscular, nervous, connective, or other tissue in the human or animal body Felting: the process by which wool or another textile can be agitated, often along with moisture or heat, to cause the fibers to migrate amongst themselves and mat together into a dense smooth surface Ratchet: a device consisting of a bar or wheel with a set of angled teeth that allow motion in one direction only Wool: soft curly or wavy hair forming the coat of a sheep or similar animal, especially when cut off the animal & prepared for use in making cloth or yarn Mammal: a warm-blooded, bony, & hairy/furry animal, the females of which give birth to live young and nurse them with milk ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang (@QCVisual) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Is it Better to Walk or Run in the Rain? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MqYE2UuN24 ___________________________________________ References: Gupta, N. P., Agarwal, R., & Pant, S. (2009). Factors affecting felting of wool: An overview. Colourage, 56(1). Johnson, N. A., & Russell, I. (Eds.). (2008). Advances in wool technology. Elsevier. https://goo.gl/vZ9eCn Makinson, K. R. (1972). The Role of the Scales of Wool Fibers in Felting and in Shrinkproofing. Wool Sci. Rev, (42), 2-16. Makinson, K. R. (1979). Shrinkproofing of wool (Vol. 8). M. Dekker. Chicago. Menkart, J., & Speakman, J. B. (1945). Scaliness of Wool Fibres. Nature, 156, 143-143. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v156/n3953/abs/156143a0.html van der Vegt, A. K. (1955). A study on the mechanism of wool felting. Excelsior.


Why Some Molecules Have Evil Twins
Apr 19 2017 2 mins  
A tiny change in a molecule’s geometry completely changes its effects on the human body. How We Made This Video (Ever & David Talk About Drugs): Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with: Enantiomers: Molecules that are mirror images of each other. Chirality: A geometric property that makes a molecule non-superimposable on its mirror image. Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant. Levmetamfetamine: The new name for the left-handed version of methamphetamine, which acts as a vasoconstrictor. Carvone: A terpenoid found in many essential oils. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: Twitter: And find us on itunes: ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Breaking Bad: ___________________________________________ References: Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL., et al. “The Making or Breaking of Covalent Bonds Involves Large Energy Changes”. Molecular Cell Biology. Section 2:1 (22). Retrieved from: Wallach, J. “A Comprehensive Guide to the Clandestine Chemistry of 'Breaking Bad'” Vice. (2013). Retrieved from: . Thanks to the following experts for their input and feedback: Jason Wallach, Vice writer and chemist Donna Nelson, University of Oklahoma chemistry professor and technical advisor to ‘Breaking Bad’ Adam Braunschweig, CUNY chemistry professor () Justin Dragna, University of Texas chemistry professor

How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart)
Apr 12 2017 3 mins  
Check out how cats became our favorite little murder machines. To learn how dogs and humans got together, watch the companion video over at It's OK To Be Smart: https://youtu.be/tggdERc8E6Y. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Puma: The big cat with the largest home range. Felix silvestris: The wildcat that is the direct ancestor to all modern house cats. Bastet: Egyptian cat goddess. Pseudaelurus: A prehistoric cat that is the common ancestor to all modern felines. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Sarah Keartes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Joe Hanson (@DrJoeHanson) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Hu, Yaowu, et al. ""Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.1 (2014): 116-120." Montague, Michael J., et al. ""Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.48 (2014): 17230-17235. O’Brien, Stephen J., and Warren E. Johnson. The evolution of cats. Scientific American 297.1 (2007): 68-75. "The Lion in the Living Room"" - Abigail Tucker http://amzn.to/2ppLNxz (Public library: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/956395842) Vigne, Jean-Denis, et al. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PloS one 11.1 (2016): e0147295. Human-cat burial image provided courtesy of Pr . Jean Guilaine excavations

What Makes A Dinosaur?
Mar 28 2017 2 mins  
Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Due to a revolution in our understanding of the tree of life, birds are dinosaurs, while dimetrodons are not. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Systema Naturae: A 1735 book by Carl Linnaeus that outlined his hierarchical classification of animals. Plagiuri: an early,now disused, biological subclassification of fish used by Linnaeus that also included dolphins and whales. Anthropomorpha: a defunct taxon established by Linnaeus for genera Homo (humans), Simia (monkeys and apes in general) and Bradypus (sloths). Cladogram: A branching diagram showing the evolutionary relationship between species. Dimetrodon: An extinct carnivorous synapsid related to early mammals. Plesiosaur: An extinct marine reptile with a long neck related to modern snakes. Species featured in this video: Brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: After her great video on Dimetrodon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-tdVPiyVDsQ, The Brain Scoop’s Emily Graslie started a blog devoted to the dinosaur confusion in modern toys: http://isnotadinosaur.tumblr.com/. ___________________________________________ References: Angielczyk, K. (2009). Dimetrodon is not a Dinosaur: Using Tree Thinking to Understand the Ancient Relatives of Mammals and their Evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach 2:257–271. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12052-009-0117-4 Romero, A. (2012). When Whales Became Mammals: The Scientific Journey of Cetaceans From Fish to Mammals in the History of Science. New Approaches to the Study of Marine Mammals. Chapter 1. Retrieved from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-approaches-to-the-study-of-marine-mammals Switek, B. (2010). Why a Pterosaur is Not a Dinosaur. Smithsonian. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-a-pterosaur-is-not-a-dinosaur-87082921/

Why Is A Group Of Crows Called A “Murder"?
Mar 15 2017 1 mins  
Collective nouns are a great way to have fun with language and nature. PLEASE SUPPORT US ON PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Thank you! ___________________________________________ Collective Noun: A noun that denotes a group of individuals. Terms of Venery: Collective nouns specific to certain groups of animals. Clowder: A term for a group of cats that means roughly, huddle, and comes from the same root as clot. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Mental Floss’s collection of collective nouns: http://mentalfloss.com/article/33580/50-collective-nouns-bolster-your-vocabulary ___________________________________________ References: Berners, D. J. (1494). The Boke of Saint Albans. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=-awLAAAAIAAJ Lipton, J. (1993). An Exaltation of Larks. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Exaltation-Larks-Ultimate-James-Lipton/dp/0140170960 Lund, N. (2015). No, It’s Not Actually a Murder of Crows. Audubon (December). Retrieved from: http://www.audubon.org/news/no-its-not-actually-murder-crows


Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales
Mar 07 2017 2 mins  
Thanks to Crunchyroll for sponsoring this video: http://www.crunchyroll.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Cephalopod: An active predatory mollusk like an octopus or a squid. Cetacean: A marine mammal like a porpoise, dolphin or whale. Colon: The part of the large intestine that goes from the cecum to the rectum. Rectum: The last part of the intestine that ends in the anus. Eau de toilette: A dilute form of perfume ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: When a whale falls, it's story has just begun: https://vimeo.com/29987934 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, R. (2006). The Origin of Ambergris. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 5:1 (7-21). Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00087Dannenfeldt, K. (1982). Ambergris: The Search for Its Origin. Isis 73:3 (382-397). Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/231442Kemp, K. (2016). Personal communication based on his book, “Floating Gold: A Natural (and Unnatural) History of Ambergris.” Link: https://www.amazon.com/Floating-Gold-Natural-Unnatural-Ambergris/dp/0226430367

Why Are Snakes So Creepy?
Mar 02 2017 2 mins  
Snakes occupy a special place in the human brain because they’re so weird. Thanks to 23andMe for sponsoring this video! http://www.23andme.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Ophidiophobia: The abnormal fear of snakes Lateral Undulation: Waves of lateral bending through the body that propel the snake forward. Trichromatic Vision: Three color receptors in the eye that allow the animal to see a wider spectrum of colors. Electroencephalogram: A non-invasive method of measuring electrical activity in the brain. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Emily Elert, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Vsauce2 on Dragons and Snakes and Humans: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6grLJyqIM8E ___________________________________________ References: Isbell, L. (2004). Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51 (1-35). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16545427LoBue, V., and DeLoache, J. (2008). Detecting the Snake in the Grass: Attention to Fear-Relevant Stimuli by Adults and Young Children. Psychological Science 19:3 (284-289). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18315802Van Lea, W., Isbelle, L., Matsumotoa, J., Nguyen, J., Horia, E., Maiorc, R., Tomazc, R., Trana, A., Onoa, T., and Nishijoa, H. (2013) Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes. PNAS 110:47 (19000-19005). Retrieved from: http://www.pnas.org/content/110/47/19000Kawai, N., and He, H. (2016). Breaking Snake Camouflage: Humans Detect Snakes More Accurately than Other Animals under Less Discernible Visual Conditions. PLoS ONE 11:10. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164342.

Why Did T Rex Have Such Tiny Arms?
Feb 22 2017 3 mins  
It's easy to assume that every trait - including stubby arms on a terrifying predator - must be beneficial, but the forces of evolution don't really work like that. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Evolutionary Mechanisms: Forces that change the frequency of genes in populations. Natural Selection: The process whereby traits that make animals more likely to survive and reproduce take hold in a population. Vestigiality: The process by which a genetically-determined structure loses some or all of its functionality. Genetic Drift: A change in the frequency of an allele due to random sampling. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: The BrainScoop on Sue the T. Rex: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HHhI4eqYGdk ___________________________________________ References: Switek, B. (2013). Paleontology: The Truth about the T. Rex 502 (424-426). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/news/palaeontology-the-truth-about-t-rex-1.13988 E. Snively, A. P. Russell, G. L. Powell, J. M. Theodor & M.J.Ryan (2014). The role of the neck in the feeding behaviour of the Tyrannosauridae: inference based on kinematics and muscle function of extant avians. Journal of Zoology 292 (290-303). Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12109/abstract Middleton, K., and Gatesy, S. (2000) Theropod forelimb design and evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128 (149-187). Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2000.tb00160.x/abstract Lynch, M., Ackerman, M., Gout, J., Long, H., Sung, W., Thomas, W., and Foster, P. (2016). Genetic drift, selection and the evolution of the mutation rate. Nature Reviews: Genetics 17 (704-715). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/nrg/journal/v17/n11/full/nrg.2016.104.html


How Physics Saved Two Million Premature Babies
Feb 14 2017 3 mins  
This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2lhhtmJ. Doctors beat back a disease that was killing tens of thousands of babies a year with a machine based on a simple principle of physics. Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Preterm Birth: The leading cause of death of children under five years old, prematurity occurs for a variety of different reasons. Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A syndrome in premature babies caused by insufficient production of pulmonary surfactant. Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow for rapid gas exchange Pulmonary Surfactant: A mixture of lipids and proteins that decreases surface tension in the alveoli. Law of Laplace: A law of physics stating that the pressure within a sphere is inversely proportional to its radius. CPAP: A ventilator that provides Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) to keep the airways open. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: 10 Awesome Balloon Tricks by Mr. Hacker: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXqmvFy9cXE ___________________________________________ References: Gregg, R. Bernstein, J. (1961). Pulmonary Hyaline Membranes and the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children 102 (871-889). Retrieved from: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/500014 Gregory, G., Kitterman, J., Phibbs, R., Tooley, W., and Hamilton, W. (1971). Treatment of the Idiopathic Respiratory-Distress Syndrome with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. New England Journal of Medicine 284 (1333-1340). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4930602 Kamath, B., MacGuire, E., McClure, E., Goldenberg, R., and Jobe, A. (2011) Neonatal Mortality From Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lessons for Low-Resource Countries. Pediatrics 127 (1139-1146). Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/6/1139 Mai, C., Yaster, M., Firth, P. (2013). The development of continuous positive airway pressure:an interview with Dr. George Gregory. Pediatric Anaesthesia 23 (3-8). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23170829

Why Is Poop Brown And Pee Yellow?
Feb 02 2017 2 mins  
To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 The pigments in our food all get destroyed on their way through our digestive system...so where do the colors of our poop and pee come from? Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: - Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen - Hemoglobin also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. - Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates. - Urobilinogen is a colourless by-product of bilirubin reduction. It is formed in the intestines by bacterial action on bilirubin. About half of the urobilinogen formed is reabsorbed and taken up via the portal vein to the liver, enters circulation and is excreted by the kidney. - Urobilin or urochrome is the chemical primarily responsible for the yellow color of urine. - Stercobilin is the chemical responsible for the brown color of human feces" __________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Will Tauxe Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________

Should We Grow Human Organs In Pigs?
Jan 25 2017 3 mins  
An amazing new technology will let scientists grow new kidneys for patients using their own stem cells inside of pigs. To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/r/minuteearth2 Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Organ transplantation - surgically transferring an organ from one person into another. Xenotransplantation - transplanting organs between members of different species. Transplant rejection - when the organ recipient’s immune system destroys transplanted tissue. Pluripotent stem cells - embryonic cells that can give rise to all the different types of cells that make up the body. CRISPR - a genome editing tool that allows scientists to modify genes in living cells. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writers: Rachel Becker (@Ra_Becks) & David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Ross, P. (2016). Personal Communication Tushla, L. (2015). When a Transplant Fails. National Kidney Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.kidney.org/transplantation/transaction/TC/summer09/TCsm09_TransplantFails Reardon, S. (2015) New life for pig-to-human transplants 527 (152-154). Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/news/new-life-for-pig-to-human-transplants-1.18768 Nagashima, H., Matsunari, H. (2016). Growing human organs in pigs - A dream or reality? Theriogenology 86 (422-426). Retrieved from http://www.theriojournal.com/article/S0093-691X(16)30095-4/pdf

Why Don't Americans Eat Reindeer?
Dec 19 2016 2 mins  
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video! Reindeer meat could’ve entered North American cuisine and culture, but our turn of the century efforts to develop a reindeer industry were stymied by nature, the beef lobby, and the Great Depression. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ Help translate this video: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?v=owNMCTmbG9w&ref=share FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Reindeer - the smaller, (semi-)domesticated version/subspecies of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Caribou - the wild, north American subspecies of Rangifer tarandus (Rangifer tarandus granti and others). Wild reindeer - the wild, European/Asian subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. Herding - bringing animals together into a group, maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place Rain-on-snow event - exactly what it sounds like! Rain that falls on snow, freezes into a thick layer of impenetrable ice over pastures, and causes mass starvation of reindeer (or caribou) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Rangifer tarandus - Alexandre Buisse https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:20070818-0001-strolling_reindeer.jpg _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Alaska Fish & Game Dept website for “Santa's Reindeer” species - http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=santasreindeer.main A virtual guide to reindeer and the people who herd them - http://reindeerherding.org/ The Great Canadian Reindeer Project - http://www.canadashistory.ca/Magazine/Online-Extension/Articles/The-Great-Canadian-Reindeer-Project How one storm killed 61,000 Russian reindeer in 2013: http://www.popsci.com/sea-ice-loss-is-imperiling-reindeer-herders-way-life ___________________________________________ References: Special thanks to Professor Greg Finstad of the University of Alaska Fairbanks for lending his advice, expertise, and patience to the making of this video! Christie, A., & Finstad, G. L. (2009). Reindeer in the “Great Land”: Alaska's Red Meat Industry. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information, 10(4), 354-373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10496500903245651 Daniel, C. R., Cross, A. J., Koebnick, C., & Sinha, R. (2011). Trends in meat consumption in the USA. Public health nutrition, 14(04), 575-583. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045642/pdf/nihms-253312.pdf Dubner, S. J. (2010, December 9). Beef or Chicken? A Look at U.S. Meat Trends in the Last Century [Blog post]. Retrieved December 1, 2016, from http://freakonomics.com/2010/12/09/beef-or-chicken-a-look-at-u-s-meat-trends-in-the-last-century/ Finstad, G. L. (2016). Personal Communication. Finstad, G. L., Bader, H. R., & Prichard, A. K. (2002). Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska. Rangifer, 22(4), 33-37. https://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/1668/1559 Finstad, G. L., Kielland, K. K., & Schneider, W. S. (2006). Reindeer herding in transition: historical and modern day challenges for Alaskan reindeer herders. Nomadic Peoples, 10(2), 31-49. http://reindeer.salrm.uaf.edu/resources/journal_articles/Nomadic_Peoples10(2)31-49.PDF Stern, R. O., Arobio, E. L., Naylor, L. L., & Thomas, W. C. (1980). Eskimos, reindeer, and land. https://scholarworks.alaska.edu/bitstream/handle/11122/1205/Bulletin59.pdf?sequence=1 Willis, R. (2006). A New Game in the North: Alaska Native Reindeer Herding, 1890–1940. Western Historical Quarterly, 37(3), 277-301. http://oit-fhs-pws1.oit.duke.edu/Fellowships/Willis.pdf

How This Sea Shell Knows the Weather in Greenland
Dec 07 2016 2 mins  
Foraminifera – tiny, single-celled marine life forms – build gorgeous houses that record how much ice there is on the planet. This video was supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. To learn more, visit https://www.heisingsimons.org/ Special thanks to Professor Lee Kump of Penn State University and Professor Howie Spero of UC-Davis for lending their advice, expertise, and patience to the making of this video! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Help translate this video: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?ref=share&v=oaOfeSJZ3lY ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: foraminifera: a class of single-celled marine organisms – protists, not animals – that live either near the surface ("planktonic foraminifera") or on the seafloor ("benthic foraminifera"). Called forams for short. climate proxy: something that tells us what the climate was like in the past, such as data from the thickness of tree rings, the composition of gases trapped in ancient ice, historical human records of annual bloom times (eg the long-recorded bloom dates of cherry trees in Kyoto, Japan), or the ratios of certain stable isotopes found in shells, corals, or other biogenic substances oxygen-18: a stable isotope of oxygen that contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons, rather than the 8 protons and 8 neutrons of "regular" oxygen (oxygen-16). The ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in seawater (and sea shells) can be used as a proxy for the global average temperature ice sheet: a permanent layer of ice covering land, as found in polar regions (and as distinguished from sea ice, like the stuff that floats at the north pole in the Arctic ocean). Combined, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contain more than 99% of the total freshwater ice on Earth. ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: The Tiniest Fossils by the AMNH https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLSa8cGJixQ Orbulina feeding on Artemia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYQNt52tiVU Mysterious Web Masters https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q0WbN34Mh7k ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image credits: Cribrohantkenina inflata - Paul Pearson https://museum.wales/articles/2007-08-03/Up-close-with-nature/ Elphidium macellum, Bulimina and Calcarina hispida by foraminifera.eu http://www.foraminifera.eu/ Globigerina - Hannes Grobe http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/our-work/biodiversity/planktonic-forminera.html _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ REFERENCES Hays, J. D., Imbrie, J., & Shackleton, N. J. (1976). Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages. Science, 194(4270), 1121-1132. Abstract: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/194/4270/1121 Kendall, C., & McDonnell, J.J. (1998). Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry. In Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology (pp. 51-86). Eds: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. Link: http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/isopubs/itchch2.html#2.3 Kucera, M. (2007). Planktonic Foraminifera as Tracers of Past Oceanic Environments. In Developments in Marine Geology, Volume 1, (pp. 213-262). Link: http://pmc.ucsc.edu/~apaytan/290A_Winter2014/pdfs/2007%20Proxies%20Chapter%20six.pdf NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information, State of the Climate: Global Analysis for Annual 2015, published online January 2016, retrieved on November 28, 2016 from http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201513. Sachs, J., & Steig, E. (2010) Lecture on Isotopes and Air Temperature. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Link: http://courses.washington.edu/proxies/AirTemperatureLecture2_2010.pdf Shanahan, T. (2010). Lecture on Oxygen Isotopes. University of Texas, Austin, Texas. Link: http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/302c/L16-N.pdf

How Humans Made Malaria So Deadly
Nov 29 2016 2 mins  
Thanks to http://www.givewell.org/ for sponsoring this video! To learn more about the Against Malaria Foundation, visit: http://www.givewell.org/AMF or https://www.againstmalaria.com. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Malaria - a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasite - an organism that benefits by living in/on a host organism and deriving nutrients at the host's expense. Host - an organism in/on which another organism lives. Protozoa - a group of single-celled microscopic animals (not bacteria or viruses) that includes the Plasmodium species. Plasmodium - a genus of parasitic protozoa, many of which cause malaria in their hosts. Four species regularly infect humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, & P. ovale. P. falciparum - the Plasmodium species that kills the most people, by causing malignant malaria, the most dangerous form of malaria. Anopheles gambiae - a ‘complex' of at least seven species of mosquitoes that are the main vectors of P. falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. Species complex - a group of closely related species that look so similar that the boundaries between them are often unclear. Hunting and gathering - depending primarily on wild foods for subsistence Paleontology - the study of fossils and what fossils tell us about the past, about evolution, and about how humans fit into the world. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Amazing animation of seasonal temperature suitability for malaria https://goo.gl/63pYGt Americapox CGPGrey video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEYh5WACqEk The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/ ___________________________________________ References: Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. (2002). Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. http://cmr.asm.org/content/15/4/564.full Gething, P. W., et al. (2011). A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010. Malaria journal, 10(1), 1. http://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-10-378 Gething, P. W., et al. (2011). Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & Vectors, 4(1), 1. http://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92 Hay, S. I., et al. (2004). The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145123/ Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). (2016). GBD Compare Data Visualization. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington. Retrieved from http://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare. Liu, W., et al. (2010). Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas. Nature, 467(7314), 420-425. doi: 10.1038/nature09442 Malaria: Fact sheet (April 2016). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/ Packard, R. M. (2007). The making of a tropical disease: a short history of malaria (pp. 1-66 ). Baltimore. Rich, S. M., et al. (2009). The origin of malignant malaria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(35), 14902-14907. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907740106 Shah, S. (2010). The Fever: how malaria has ruled humankind for 500,000 years (pp. 1-33). Macmillan. Sundararaman, S. A., et al. (2016). Genomes of cryptic chimpanzee Plasmodium species reveal key evolutionary events leading to human malaria. Nature communications, 7. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms11078 Webb, J. L. (2009). Humanity's burden: a global history of malaria (pp. 1-91). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. World Health Organization. (2015). World malaria report 2015. World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/

Why Only Some Monkeys Have Awesome Tails
Nov 16 2016 2 mins  
Almost all mammals with prehensile tails live in the neotropics because the forest is different there. Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Spider Monkey - Wikimedia user Petruss https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ateles_fusciceps_Colombia.JPG Capuchin Monkey - Steve Jurvetson https://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/4238921909/ Guianan Saki - Wikimedia user Skyscraper https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White-faced_Saki_2008-07.jpg Emperor Tamarin - TheBrockenInaGlory https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emperor_Tamarin_SF_ZOO.jpg Aotus nigriceps - Wikimedia user Miguelrangeljr https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aotus_nigriceps.jpg _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Prehensile Tail: An animal tail that can grasp or hold objects. A wide range of animals have prehensile tails, including mammals (like opossums and kinkajous), reptiles (like chameleons), amphibians (like salamanders), and fish (seahorses). Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecidae): A family of primates native to Africa and Asia that includes baboons, guenons and macaques – all of which have non-prehensile tails. New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini): A family of primates native to Central and South America that includes spider monkeys, howlers, and capuchins – all of which have prehensile tails. Prehensile tails evolved twice in new world monkeys: In atelines (spider monkey and howlers) the prehensile tail tip is like a finger and incredibly dextrous. In cebines (capuchin monkeys) the tip is furry and not quite as dextrous. Species featured in this video: - Spider Monkey (and Diddy Kong!) - Ficus insipida (tripical fig tree) - Barbary Macaque (from Northern Africa) - Rhesus Macaque(from India) - Opossum - Chameleon - Salamander (Aneides lugubris) - Seahorses (actually Horsea!) ___________________________________________ References: Glander, K. (2016). Personal Communication Organ, J. (2016). Personal Communication Emmons, L.H., Gentry, A.H. (1983). Tropical Forest Structure and the Distribution of Gliding and Prehensile-Tailed Vertebrates. The American Naturalist 121-4 (513-524). Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2460978?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Lambert, T., Halsey, M. (2015) Relationship Between Lianas and Arboreal Mammals: Examining the Emmons–Gentry Hypothesis. Ecology of Lianas (398-406).. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118392409.ch26/summary Deane, A., Russo, G., Muchlinski, M., Organ, J. (2014). Caudal Vertebral Body Articular Surface Morphology Correlates With Functional Tail Use in Anthropoid Primates. Journal of Morphology 275 (1300-1311). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.20304/abstract

Why Are There So Many Tigers In Texas?
Nov 02 2016 2 mins  
Why there will likely soon be more tigers in backyards in Texas than in the wilds of Asia. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Camera trap photo courtesy of Ullas Karanth from the Wildlife Conservation Society _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: A fun game - try to match tigers by their stripe patterns: http://www.sciencefriday.com/articles/can-tell-tigers-apart/ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Crypsis: An animal’s ability to avoid detection by other animals. Tigers use camouflage crypsis as part of their predation strategy. Apex Predator: An animal on top of the food chain with no natural predator in its ecosystem. Camera Trap: A motion-sensor activated camera to capture images of animals in the wild with as little human interference as possible. Cultural Climate: Shared perceptions and attitudes in a particular area. ___________________________________________ References: Kenney, J.S., Smith, J.L.D., Starfield, A.M., McDougal, C.W. (1995). The Long-Term Effects of Tiger Poaching on Population Viability. Conservation Biology 9-5 (1127-1133). Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9051116.x-i1/abstract Del Bosque, M. (2008) A Tiger’s Tale. Texas Observer. Retrieved from: https://www.texasobserver.org/2835-a-tigers-tale-in-texas-where-you-can-own-a-pet-tiger-the-booming-exotic-animal-trade-has-grim-consequences/ Karanth, U. (2016). Personal Communication. Rudner, J. (2016) Tigers in Texas: We don't even know how many there are. Texas Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.houstonchronicle.com/local/gray-matters/article/Tigers-and-Texas-We-don-t-even-know-how-many-7375558.php Joshi, A., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E., Anderson, M.L., Olson, D., Jones, B.S., Seidensticker, J., Lumpkin, S., Hansen, M.C., Sizer, N.C., Davis, C.L., Palminteri, S., Hahn, N.R. (2016). Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat. Science Advances 2-4 (e1501675). Retrieved from http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/4/e1501675.full Smith, J.L.D., McDougal, C., Gurung, B. Shrestha, N., Shrestha, M., Allendorf, T., Joshi, A., and Dhakal, N. (2010) Securing the Future for Nepal’s Tigers: Lessons from the Past and Present. Tigers of The World, Second Edition. Chapter 25 (331-343). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216561296_Securing_the_Future_for_Nepal's_Tigers_Lessons_from_the_Past_and_Present


Why Do Animals Eat Their Babies?
Oct 20 2016 2 mins  
Sometimes, it makes sense for critters across the animal kingdom to chow down on their own young. Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Mark Roth - Melissa Vigil - Valentin - Alberto Bortoni ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Rachel (@RA_Becks) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Filial cannibalism: is a form of infanticide that occurs when an adult individual of a species consumes all or part of the young of its own species or immediate offspring. Species featured in this video: - Hamsters (Cricetinae family) - Assassin bug (Rhinocoris tristis) - Red Tailed Monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) - Long Tailed Skink (Eutropis longicaudata) - Egg-eating snake (Oligodon formosanus) - Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) ___________________________________________ References: Special thanks to Professor Hope Klug, from the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, for help with research on this video! Day, C. S., & Galef, B. G. (1977). Pup cannibalism: One aspect of maternal behavior in golden hamsters. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 91(5), 1179-1189. doi:10.1037/h0077386 Gilbert, W. M., Nolan, P. M., Stoehr, A. M., & Hill, G. E. (2005). Filial Cannibalism at a House Finch Nest. The Wilson Bulletin, 117(4), 413-415. doi:10.1676/04-003.1 Full text: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20060130?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Huang, W. (2008). Predation risk of whole-clutch filial cannibalism in a tropical skink with maternal care. Behavioral Ecology, 19(6), 1069-1074. Full text: http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/6/1069.full#ref-1 Klug, H., & Bonsall, M. (2007). When to Care for, Abandon, or Eat Your Offspring: The Evolution of Parental Care and Filial Cannibalism. The American Naturalist, 170(6), 886-901. doi:10.1086/522936 Abstract: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/522936#rf13 Klug, H., & Lindstrom, K. (2008). Hurry-up and hatch: Selective filial cannibalism of slower developing eggs. Biology Letters, 4(2), 160-162. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0589 Abstract: http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/4/2/160 Why do some fish eat their own eggs? - Phys.org. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2016, from http://phys.org/news/2016-02-fish-eggs.html

Why Biodiversity Is Good For The Economy
Oct 13 2016 2 mins  
Research suggests that more diverse ecosystems are better for the bottom line. Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Peter's Science paper: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6309/aaf8957 ___________________________________________ A big thank-you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Mark Roth - Melissa Vigil - Valentin - Alberto Bortoni _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Biodiversity - the variety of genes, species, and ecosystems Conservation - ethical use and protection of valuable natural resources (e.g. trees, minerals, wildlife, water) Ecosystem - a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment Ecosystem services - benefits people obtain from ecosystems (four categories: supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural) Richness - the number of species in an ecological community, landscape, or region Pollinators - animals that help plants reproduce by moving pollen from male flowers to female flowers Pollution - the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment (e.g. chemicals, particles, noise, heat, light) ___________________________________________ References: Bartomeus, I., Park, M.G., Gibbs, J., Danforth, B.N., Lakso, A.N. and Winfree, R., 2013. Biodiversity ensures plant–pollinator phenological synchrony against climate change. Ecology Letters, 16(11), pp.1331-1338. Dee LE, Miller SJ, Peavey LE, Bradley D, Gentry RR, Startz R, Gaines SD, Lester SE. 2016 Functional diversity of catch mitigates negative effects of temperature variability on fisheries yields. Proc. R. Soc. B 83: 20161435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.143 Delgado-Baquerizo, M., L. Giaramida, P. B. Reich, A. N. Khachane, K. Hamonts, C. Edwards, L. Lawton, B. K. Singh. 2016. Lack of functional redundancy in the relationship between microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning. Journal of Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12585 "FAO, “Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 - How are the world’s forests changing? ” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 2015) FAO, “Contribution of the forestry sector to national economies, 1990-2011” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, 2014) Garibaldi, Lucas A., et al. ""Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms."" Science 351.6271 (2016): 388-391. Isbell, Forest, et al. ""Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes."" Nature 526.7574 (2015): 574-577." Isbell, F., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., & Loreau, M. (2015). The biodiversity‐dependent ecosystem service debt. Ecology letters, 18(2), 119-134. Liang J, T Crowther, GFBI, and PB Reich. 2016. Positive biodiversity–productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8957. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6309/aaf8957 Liang, J, M Zhou, PC Tobin, AD McGuire, PB Reich. 2015. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112:5738–5743. McCarthy, Donal P., et al. "Financial costs of meeting global biodiversity conservation targets: current spending and unmet needs." Science 338.6109 (2012): 946-949. Reich PB, D Tilman, F Isbell, K Mueller, S Hobbie, D Flynn, N Eisenhauer. 2012. Impacts of biodiversity loss escalate as redundancy fades. Science 336:589-592. Tilman, D, PB Reich, J Knops, D Wedin, T Mielke, C Lehman. 2001. Diversity and productivity in a long-term grassland experiment. Science 294: 843-845.

How Different Are Different Types of Dogs?
Oct 10 2016 2 mins  
A big thank-you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Today I Found Out - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Mark Roth - Melissa Vigil - Valentin - Alberto Bortoni ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: Some thoroughly unscientific ways to test your dog’s intelligence: http://www.wikihow.com/Test-a-Dog's-Intelligence FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Breed group: A grouping of dog breeds based on their historical jobs. Dog personality traits: Levels of playfulness, curiosity, sociability, and aggressiveness that dogs exhibit based on testing. Animal Cognition: The study of the mental capacities of animals. Confirmation bias: The tendency to interpret evidence in favor of one’s existing beliefs. ___________________________________________ References: Svartberg, K. (2006). Breed-typical behaviour in dogs—Historical remnants or recent constructs? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 96 (293-313). Retrieved from http://www.appliedanimalbehaviour.com/article/S0168-1591(05)00160-7/abstract Svartberg, K. (2016). Personal Communication. Hare, B. & Woods, V. (2013) The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Genius-Dogs-Smarter-Than-Think/dp/0142180467/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1475530594&sr=1-1 Helton, W. (2010). Does perceived trainability of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) breeds reflect differences in learning or differences in physical ability? Behavioural Processes 83 (315-323). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20117185 Pongracz, P., Miklosi, A., Vida, V., Csanyi, V. (2005) The pet dogs ability for learning from a human demonstrator in a detour task is independent from the breed and age. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90 (309-323). Retrieved from http://www.appliedanimalbehaviour.com/article/S0168-1591(04)00177-7/abstract

Which Parts Of The Brain Do What?
Sep 20 2016 3 mins  
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Got questions!? Discuss this vid with brain experts on Reddit: http://bit.ly/RedditBrains Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Today I Found Out - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Mark Roth - Melissa Vigil - Valentin - Alberto Bortoni ___________________________________________ Our functional map of the brain has changed. Here's why. Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar and Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like this: A digitally remastered look at the injuries of Phineas Gage, history's most famous lesion patient: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/... FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Brain lesion: Damage to the brain caused by disease or injury. Broca’s area: Region in the frontal lobe associated with speech production. Fusiform face area: Structure near the back of the brain associated with facial recognition. Hippocampus: Seahorse-shaped brain structure associated with memory formation. Amygdala: Small brain structure associated with emotions and memories. fMRI: An imaging procedure that measures brain activity by tracking changes associated with blood flow. ___________________________________________ References: Rorden, C., Karnath, H. (2004). Using human brain lesions to infer function: a relic from a past era in the fMRI age? Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5 (812-819). Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/nrn/journal/v5/... Barbey, A., Colom, R., Solomon, J., Kreuger, F., Forbes,C., Grafman, J. (2012). An integrative architecture for general intelligence and executive function revealed by lesion mapping. Brain,135 (1154-1164). Retrieved from http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/conte... Yildirim, F., Sarikcioglu (2007). Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794–1867): an extraordinary scientist of his time. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 78(8) 852. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti... Barbey, A. (2016). Personal Communication. Rorden, C. (2016). Personal Communication.

The Faint Young Sun Paradox!
Sep 07 2016 2 mins  
This video was supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. To learn more, visit https://www.heisingsimons.org/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Rachel Becker (@RA_Becks) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like this: Fantastic Aurora: Inside the Sun to Earth's Poles https://youtu.be/N5utQxtma2U?t=3m1s FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Abiogenesis – the process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. Amino Acids – a class of organic compounds. Twenty of the roughly 500 known amino acids appear in the genetic code, and, when strung together into long chains, form the basic building blocks of proteins. Faint Young Sun Paradox – describes the apparent contradiction between evidence for a warm ancient Earth, and stellar models, which predict that the young Sun was 25% dimmer than today's Sun. First described by Carl Sagan and George Mullen in 1972. The Miller–Urey experiment – a landmark experiment in the 1950s in which scientists demonstrated that amino acids could form spontaneously from inorganic gases present in Earth's early atmosphere Snowball Earth – a climatic state of Earth in which the entire surface becomes frozen over. Molecules featured in this video: - Carbon dioxide (CO2) - Methane (CH4) - Nitrous oxide (N20) - Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) - Amino acids (especifically threonine, valine, cysteine and methionine) - Adenine (C5H5N5) - Glycine (C2H5NO2) ___________________________________________ References: Airapetian, V. S., Glocer, A., Gronoff, G., Hébrard, E., & Danchi, W. (2016). Prebiotic chemistry and atmospheric warming of early Earth by an active young Sun. Nature Geoscience Nature Geosci, 9(6), 452-455. doi:10.1038/ngeo2719 Earth's changeable atmosphere. (2016). Nature Geoscience Nature Geosci, 9(6), 409-409. doi:10.1038/ngeo2735 Feulner, G. (2012). The faint young Sun problem. Rev. Geophys. Reviews of Geophysics, 50(2). doi:10.1029/2011rg000375 Leconte, J., Forget, F., Charnay, B., Wordsworth, R., & Pottier, A. (2013). Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets. Nature, 504(7479), 268-271. doi:10.1038/nature12827 Marchi, S., Black, B., Elkins-Tanton, L., & Bottke, W. (2016). Massive impact-induced release of carbon and sulfur gases in the early Earth's atmosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 449, 96-104. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.032 Sagan, C., & Mullen, G. (1972). Earth and Mars: Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperatures. Science, 177(4043), 52-56. doi:10.1126/science.177.4043.52 Wolf, E. T., & Toon, O. B. (2014). Delayed onset of runaway and moist greenhouse climates for Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(1), 167-172. doi:10.1002/2013gl058376

Why Can't Mules Have Babies?
Aug 23 2016 3 mins  
Thanks to The Great Courses Plus for sponsoring this video. You can start your subscription with a free one-month trial today by visiting http://ow.ly/Yq7c302duah Hybrid animals are infertile because of the way their sex cells form. But sometimes, life finds a way. FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Hybrid organisms: The offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. - Mitosis: A process of cell division that produces copies of the original cell. - Meiosis: A process of cell dividion that produces new daughter cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell. - Sex cell, or gamete: a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce. - Hemiclonal transmission: The rare occurence in which only maternal DNA gets passed along during the creation of sex cells. Species featured in this video: - Mule, is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare) - Liger, is a hybrid cross between a male lion (Panthera leo) and a female tiger (Panthera tigris) - Zonkey, is the offspring of a zebra and a donkey. Zebra hybrids are generally known as zebroids - Beefalo, also known as cattalo, is the offspring of a domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and an American buffalo (Bison bison) - Cama, is the offspring of a male dromedary camel and a female llama. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Chad Geran Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Liger Hercules - Ed Quinn https://goo.gl/A8zgxO Zonkey - Flickr user Leogirly4life https://goo.gl/QAcza0 Cama - TaylorLlamas.com http://goo.gl/YCY3Zd Beefalo - Noah's Ark Animal Sanctuary http://www.noahs-ark.org/ _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: The Blitzkreiglr YouTube guys play the game Hybrid Animals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9WS5cd_59I ___________________________________________ References: Ryder, O., Chemnick, L., Bowling, A., Benirschke, K. (1985). Male mule foal qualifies as the offspring of a female mule and Jack donkey. Journal of Heredity 76 (379-381). Retrieved from http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/content/76/5/379 C.J. Zhao, Y.H. Qin, X.H. Lee, Ch. Wu (2006). Molecular and cytogenetic paternity testing of a male offspring of a hinny. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics,123: 403-405. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177697 Bucholz (2013). Colorado miracle mule foal lived short life, but was well-loved.The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/2013/08/16/colorado-miracle-mule-foal-lived-short-life-but-was-well-loved/ Millon, L. (2016). Personal Communication. Antczak, D. (2016). Personal Communication.

How To (Literally) Save Earth
Aug 16 2016 3 mins  
Farming erodes soil 50 times faster than it forms. We can change that, but will we? Thanks to http://www.soylent.com/earth for sponsoring this video! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Rachel Becker (@RA_Becks) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Omkar Bhagat, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: America is running out of soil: http://goo.gl/FXEzeR Global Soil Partnership: http://goo.gl/lqGknM Prairie STRIPS research: https://goo.gl/1uw1Yg FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Agricultural Soil Erosion: the wearing away of a field's topsoil by the natural physical forces of water and wind or through forces associated with farming activities, such as tillage. http://goo.gl/d0Ciwk Conservation tillage/agriculture: a soil cultivation method in which fields are not ploughed & the previous year's crop residues are left on fields before and after planting the next crop, to reduce soil erosion and runoff. http://goo.gl/8aoizx, http://goo.gl/jmj8Ic Soil: the upper layer of earth, in which plants grow; a dark, damp, gas-filled structure of minerals and organic matter formed by degrading rocks and decomposing organisms. http://goo.gl/Q6JOrH ___________________________________________ References: A Landowner’s Guide to Prairie Conservation Strips. Accessed May 5, 2016. https://goo.gl/fN65MA Antón, S. C., & Steadman, D. W. (2003). Mortuary patterns in burial caves on Mangaia, Cook Islands. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 13(3), 132-146. http://goo.gl/SIiMxy FAO and ITPS. (2015). Status of the World’s Soil Resources (SWSR) – Main Report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, Italy. http://goo.gl/fxPJi0 Kirch, P. V. (1997). Microcosmic histories: Island perspectives on" global" change. American Anthropologist, 99(1), 30-42. Montgomery, D. R. (2007). Soil erosion and agricultural sustainability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(33), 13268-13272. http://goo.gl/Si9E6g Pimentel, D. (2006). Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Environment, development and sustainability, 8(1), 119-137. http://goo.gl/64FSCa Soil Building Systems. Pickup Truck Capacities. Accessed May 5, 2016. http://goo.gl/u7sPfQ Steadman, D. W., Antón, S. C., & Kirch, P. V. (2000). Ana Manuku: a prehistoric ritualistic site on Mangaia, Cook Islands. Antiquity, 74(286), 873-883. http://goo.gl/ZySytn

Can Math Explain How Animals Get Their Patterns?
Aug 11 2016 4 mins  
How Alan Turing's Reaction-Diffusion Model Simulates Patterns in Nature Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Asparagus Pee Survey Results: https://goo.gl/8x7abL ___________________________________________ If you liked this video, we think you might also like this: Reaction Diffusion Simulation (Gray-Scott model) https://pmneila.github.io/jsexp/grayscott/ ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Rachel Becker (@RA_Becks) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Also, special thanks to the following scientists: Greg Barsh: Investigator, HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology (http://goo.gl/RMD8o9) Jeremy Green: Professor of developmental biology, King’s College London (https://goo.gl/Qcn8Ay) Thomas Hiscock: Graduate student in systems biology, Harvard University (http://goo.gl/RbAWIy) Shigeru Kondo: Professor, Osaka University (http://goo.gl/uQ2wYO) James Sharpe: Coordinator of EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Unit and ICREA research professor (http://goo.gl/QCGul8) Ian Stewart: Emeritus professor of mathematics, University of Warwick and author of The Mathematics of Life (http://goo.gl/rGR1R0) Thomas Woolley: Postdoctoral scientist, St John's College Oxford (http://goo.gl/B4FZNn) Image Credits: - Mouse palate images provided courtesy of Jeremy Green, King’s College London. - Digit patterns image provided courtesy of Luciano Marcon and Jelena Raspopovic. - Angelfish and zebrafish images provided courtesy of Shigeru Kondo. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Reaction-diffusion system: A hypothetical system in which multiple chemical substances diffuse through a defined space at different rates and react with one another, thereby generating a pattern. Turing pattern: A periodic pattern that forms in a space where the initial distribution of ‘activator’ and ‘inhibitor’ is the same. Morphogenesis: The processes during development that give rise to the form or shape of the organism or a structure Alan Turing: Alan Turing was a British mathematician and the father of modern computer science. During World War II, he broke Germany’s Enigma code used to encrypt communications. ____________________ References: Economou, A. D., Ohazama, A., Porntaveetus, T., Sharpe, P. T., Kondo, S., Basson, M. A., … Green, J. B. A. (2012). Periodic stripe formation by a Turing-mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate. Nature Genetics, 44(3), 348–351. http://doi.org/10.1038/ng.1090 Economou, A. D., & Green, J. B. (2014). Modelling from the experimental developmental biologists viewpoint. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 35, 58-65. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2014.07.006 Green, J. B., & Sharpe, J. (2015). Positional information and reaction-diffusion: Two big ideas in developmental biology combine.Development, 142(7), 1203-1211. doi:10.1242/dev.114991 Kimura, Y. T. (2016, May 24). The mathematics of patterns. Retrieved from http://www.theshapeofmath.com/princeton/dynsys Kimura, Y. T. (2014). The Mathematics of Patterns: The modeling and analysis of reaction-diffusion equations (Thesis, Princeton University). Http://www.pacm.princeton.edu/documents/Kimura.pdf. Kondo, S., & Asai, R. (1995). A reaction-diffusion wave on the skin of the marine angelfish Pomacanthus. Nature, 376(6543), 765-768. doi:10.1038/376765a0 Kondo, S., & Miura, T. (2010). Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding Biological Pattern Formation. Science, 329(5999), 1616-1620. doi:10.1126/science.1179047 Marcon, L., & Sharpe, J. (2012). Turing patterns in development: What about the horse part? Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 22(6), 578-584. doi:10.1016/j.gde.2012.11.013 Raspopovic, J., Marcon, L., Russo, L., & Sharpe, J. (2014). Digit patterning is controlled by a Bmp-Sox9-Wnt Turing network modulated by morphogen gradients. Science, 345(6196), 566-570. doi:10.1126/science.1252960 Stewart, I. (2012). The mathematics of life. Philadelphia, PA: Basic Books. (https://goo.gl/IOagrs) Turing, A. M. (1952). The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 237(641), 37-72. Retrieved from http://www.dna.caltech.edu/courses/cs191/paperscs191/turing.pdf


Null Island: The Busiest Place That Doesn't Exist
Jul 07 2016 3 mins  
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to Tom Scott for helping write and narrate this video. Check out his amazing channel: https://www.youtube.com/TomScottGo Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Tom Scott (@tomscott) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Tom Scott (@tomscott) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Photo of Null Island Buoy by: Jacques Grelet, IRD.fr _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: http://www.jsonline.com/news/statepolitics/clerks-scrambling-to-get-voters-in-right-districts-3v3ov36-137102098.html

Which Bear Is Best?
Jun 21 2016 2 mins  
Why do some species flourish and others falter? Sometimes it just comes down to luck. A big thank-you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Bering land bridge: an ancient land bridge that connected Asia and North America at various times during the Quaternary glaciation, allowing Homo sapiens and other species migrations. - The Holocene extinction: (also referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction) is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch (since around 10,000 BCE) mainly due to human activity. The Holocene extinction includes the disappearance of large land animals known as megafauna, starting between 9,000 and 13,000 years ago, the end of the last Ice Age. - Atlatl (spear-thrower): is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing. - Bile bears: sometimes called battery bears, are bears kept in captivity to harvest their bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which is used by some traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, though there is no evidence that bear bile has any medicinal effect, and no plausible mechanism by which it might work. Species featured in this video: - American black bear (Ursus americanus) - Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) - Black-footed Ferret or American polecat (Mustela nigripes) - Steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanii) - Humans (Homo Sapiens) - Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich and Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Mustela nigripes - USFWS Mountain Prairie https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmtnprairie/5244106245/ Mustela eversmanii - Andrei Kotkin (used with permission) Ursus americanus - Ryan E. Poplin http://flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/668275432 Ursus thibetanus - Guérin Nicolas https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ursus_thibetanus_3_(Wroclaw_zoo).JPG _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Schieck, B., McCown, W. (2014). Geographic distribution of American black bears in North America. Ursus, 25-1(24-33). Retrieved from http://www.bearbiology.com/fileadmin/tpl/Downloads/URSUS/Vol_25_1_/Scheick_and_McCown_2014_Ursus.pdf Pappas, S. (2014).Humans Blamed for Extinction of Mammoths, Mastodons & Giant Sloths. LiveScience. Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/46081-humans-megafauna-extinction.html Feng, Y., Siu, K., Wang, N., Ng, K., Tsao, S., Nagamatsu, T., Tong, Y. (2009). Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5:2. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630947/ Biggins, D., Hanebury, L., Miller, B., Powell, R. (2011). Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents. Journal of Mammalogy, 92(4): 710-720. Retrieved from https://www.fort.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/products/publications/22786a/22786a.pdf

Would You Drink Water Made From Sewage?
Jun 13 2016 2 mins  
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: Disgust Sensitivity Quiz: https://www.helloquizzy.com/tests/the-disgust-sensitivity-test FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Disgust: A feeling of revulsion at something unpleasant - Emotion: A mental state that arises spontaneously. - Pathogen: A tiny living organism that can cause disease. - Reverse Osmosis: A way to purify water by pushing it through a semipermeable membrane. - Toilet-to-tap: A framing device used by recycled water opponents to cause people to think of sewage. - NEWater: The brand name given to recycled water in Singapore. ___________________________________________ Image Credits: Chocolate brownie - Wikimedia User m https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chocolatebrownie.JPG Soup Cream - pixabay user wowwandee (Public Domain) https://pixabay.com/en/cream-soup-food-vegetable-pumpkin-1285948/ Bed pan - Wikimedia user Michaelwalk (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Image-Oval-steel.jpg Glass of Juice - Stiftelsen Elektronikkbransjen https://www.flickr.com/photos/elektronikkbransjen/7308131990 Cockroach - Gary Alpert https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:American-cockroach.jpg ___________________________________________ References: Rozin, P., Haddad, B., Nemeroff, C., Solvic, P. (2015). Psychological aspects of the rejection of recycled water: Contamination, purification and disgust. Judgement and Decision Making, 10-1(50-63). Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/14/14117a/jdm14117a.pdf Schwartz, J. (2015). Water Flowing From Toilet to Tap May Be Hard to Swallow. New York Times, D1. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/science/recycled-drinking-water-getting-past-the-yuck-factor.html?_r=0 Haddad, B. (2012). The Psychology of Water Reclamation and Reuse: Survey Findings and Research Roadmap. U.S. Case Studies, D22-D23. Retrieved from http://www.reclaimedwater.net/data/files/153.pdf Nemeroff, C. (2016). Personal Communication. Gallagher, D.. (2016). Personal Communication.

The Basics Of Digital Illustration
May 23 2016 3 mins  
Have ever wondered how digital illustrations are made? This video explains the basics. Help us keep making videos by supporting us in We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - A raster graphics image is a digital image made of a grid of pixels - Software able to edit raster graphics: Photoshop, Corel Painter, GIMP, Krita, etc. - GIMP is free and open-source. Check them at - Krita is also free and open-source. Check them at - Pixel Art is a form of digital art where images are edited on the pixel level. - Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled, raster-like pattern are used to form a picture. - Vector graphics images are made up of mathematical shapes and can be scaled as much as needed without loss in quality. - Software able to edit vector graphics: Adobe Illustrator, CorelDraw, Inkscape, etc. - Inkscape is free and open-source. Check them at - Jaggies is the informal name for artifacts in raster images, most frequently from aliasing. - Anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing. - A graphics tablet is a computer input device that enables a user to hand-draw images with a special pen-like stylus, similar to the way a person draws images with a pencil and paper. - A clipping mask is an object whose shape masks other artwork so that only areas that lie within the shape are visible - Blend modes (or Mixing modes) in digital image editing are used to determine how two layers are blended into each other. The blending modes I use more frequently are Multiply and Overlay. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Video concept and Narration by Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) With Contributions from: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Omkar Bhagat, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Image Credits: Cross Stitch Pokemon - DeviantArt user MissTetraZelda Isometric Pixel Art - DeviantArt user RGBfumes Pixel Art Wallpaper - Flickr user RodrixAP Vector Corvette Illustration - DeviantArt user troy2007 ___________________________________________ A big thank-you to our supporters on : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Jagdtiger - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: Twitter: And find us on itunes:

Orchids: The Masters Of Lying, Cheating & Stealing
May 16 2016 3 mins  
Thanks to Curtin University and the University of Western Australia for sponsoring this video. Also, special thanks to Kingsley Dixon and the Orchid Specialist Group of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. ______ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: – Mycelium – Mycorrizhae: a fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship. – Mycoheterotroph: A plant that is completely reliant on fungus for all of its nutrition. – Sexual deception: A trick used by numerous orchid species of looking and/or smelling like female insects in order to draw male insects to their flowers (for pollination) – Food deception: Rather than offering pollinators real food rewards (such as nectar or pollen), some orchids merely mimic the looks and smells of other, nearby flowers that offer such rewards. – Pollinia: In most flowering plants, pollen is a powdery substance made up of tons of individual pollen grains. But orchids pack their grains into a couple of sticky sacks (pollinia) instead. – Epiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant. Lots of tropical orchids are epiphytes – Lithophyte: A plant that grows on rocks Species Featured in this video: - Phantom Orchid (Cephalanthera austiniae) - Bee orchid (Ophrys apifera) - Fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) - Mirror orchid (Ophrys speculum) - Red Helleborine Orchid (Cephalanthera rubra) - Nettle-leaved bellflower (Campanula trachelium) - Hammer orchid (Drakaea glyptodon) - Wasp (Zaspilothynnus trilobatus) - Lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium calceolus) - Dracula orchids (Dracula terborchii and Dracula andreettae) - Spider orchids (Genus Caladenia) - Cigar Orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) - Venus slipper (Paphiopedilum Maudiae) ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Rachel Becker and David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: Image Credits: Phantom Orchid - Miguel Vieira Ophrys apifera - Hans Hillewaert Ophrys insectifera - Bernd Haynold Ophrys speculum - Wikimedia user Esculapio Cephalanthera rubra and Campanula trachelium - Olivier Pichard Hammer Orchid Animation based on Photos by Rod Peakall Lady Slipper Orchid - Flickr user ladydragonflyherworld ______ References: Cameron DD, Johnson I, Read DJ, Leake JR. 2008. Giving and receiving: measuring the carbon cost of mycorrhizas in the green orchid, Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 180: 176–184. Cameron DD, Leake JR, Read DJ. 2006. Mutualistic mycorrhiza in orchids: evidence from plant-fungus carbon and nitrogen transfers in the green- leaved terrestrial orchid Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 171: 405–416. Cameron DD, Preiss K, Gebauer G, Read DJ. 2009. The chlorophyll containing orchid Corallorhiza trifida derives little carbon through photosynthesis. New Phytologist 183: 358–364. Givnish, T. J., Spalink, D., Ames, M., Lyon, S. P., Hunter, S. J., Zuluaga, A., . . . Cameron, K. M. (2015). Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Proc. R. Soc. B, 282(1814), 20151553. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1553 Hopper, S. D., & Brown, A. P. (2007). A revision of Australia' s hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Aust. Systematic Bot. Australian Systematic Botany, 20(3), 252. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from . IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. online April 27, 2016. Koopowitz, H.. (1992). A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR THE EXTINCTION OF TROPICAL ORCHIDS. Selbyana,13, 115–122. Retrieved from Mccormick, M. K., Taylor, D. L., Juhaszova, K., Burnett, R. K., Whigham, D. F., & O’Neill, J. P. (2012). Limitations on orchid recruitment: Not a simple picture. Molecular Ecology, 21(6), 1511-1523. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2012.05468.x Merckx, V. and Freudenstein, J. V. (2010), Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in plants: a phylogenetic perspective. New Phytologist, 185: 605–609. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from ) Rasmussen, Hanne N., and Finn N. Rasmussen. "Orchid mycorrhiza: implications of a mycophagous life style." Oikos 118.3 (2009): 334-345.


Why We Sucked At Counting Fish (Until Now)
May 06 2016 2 mins  
Thanks to for sponsoring this video. A new fish counting method has revealed there are ten times more fish in the sea than we previously thought.* *But unfortunately, this doesn't mean we're not overfishing. If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: Seeing the Sky as Galileo Saw it: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Milky Way: Earth's home galaxy - The Malaspina Expedition 2010: A research project to explore ocean biodiversity by recreating the path of a late 18th Century scientific expedition. - Sonar: A technique that uses soundwaves to map out underwater objects. - Avoidance of Trawl: A behavior in which fish move out of the way of an incoming net, perhaps through bioluminescent signalling. - Bioluminescence: Light produced by a living organism. - Deep water fish: Fish who live more than 500m below the ocean surface in the Mesopelagic, Epipelagic, and Bathypelagic zones. Species featured in this video: - Stoplight loosejaws (Malacosteus niger) - Common Fangtooth (Anoplogaster cornuta) - Lanternfishes or myctophids (Family Myctophidae) - Bristlemouths (Genus Cyclothone): The most populous vertebrate on Earth. ___________________________________________ A big thank-you to our supporters on : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Jagdtiger - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: Support us on Patreon: Also, say hello on: Facebook: Twitter: And find us on itunes: ___________________________________________ References: Kaarvedt, S., Staby, A., Aksnes, D.L. (2012). Efficient trawl avoidance by mesopelagic fishes causes large underestimation of their biomass. Marine Ecology Progress Series,456(1-6). Retrieved from Broad, W. (2015). An Ocean Mystery in the Trillions. New York Times, D1. Retrieved from: Xabier Irigoien, T. A. Klevjer, A. Røstad, U. Martinez, G. Boyra, J. L. Acuña, A. Bode, F. Echevarria, J. I. Gonzalez-Gordillo, S. Hernandez-Leon, S. Agusti, D. L. Aksnes, C. M. Duarte & S. Kaartvedt (2014). Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean. Nature Communications, 5, 3271. Retrieved from Kaarvedt, S. (2016). Personal Communication. Duarte, C. (2016). Personal Communication.

Energy Cost Of A YouTube Video
Apr 20 2016 2 mins  
Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. The title of this video changes every 10 seconds to reflect an estimate of the actual energy used just by people (like you!) watching it. Thanks to Jasper Palfree for doing the computer magic that makes that possible! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Jagdtiger - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Data – information, typically stored on computers via electrical signals Electrons – small elementary particles that flow through wires to transmit power and data Photons – small elementary particles of light that carry information from screens to your face Local Metro Network – computer network on the scale of a city, town, neighborhood, etc Live action video – a video recording of the real world (people, scenery, etc) created using a camera Data compression – storing data (pictures, video, text files, etc) in less space than the way it’s normally displayed. Kind of like a modern version of microfilm. Or words. Illustrated video – video created using computer software to generate still images, kind of like a fancy powerpoint slideshow Gangnam style – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bZkp7q19f0 ___________________________________________ References: Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925513001121 The Energy Intensity of the Internet: Home and Access Networks: http://publicationslist.org/data/lorenz.hilty/ref-229/2014_Coroama_Schien_Preist_Hilty_Energy_Intensity_Internet_Home_Access.pdf The Energy Intensity of the Internet: Edge and Core Networks: http://publicationslist.org/data/lorenz.hilty/ref-229/2014_Coroama_Schien_Preist_Hilty_Energy_Intensity_Internet_Home_Access.pdf Emerging Trends in Electricity Consumption for Consumer ICT: http://tinyurl.com/h69uvma Average energy use of American home: https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=97&t=3 Typical wattages of everyday electronics: https://www.gozolt.com/blog/power-devices-consume/ Energy in AA Batteries: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AA_battery tablet energy use: http://tinyurl.com/zy8jcle http://tinyurl.com/j8for2u http://tinyurl.com/zy8jcle http://tinyurl.com/o2u2y9m Hidden energy costs online: http://tinyurl.com/zh93kwq Average computer energy use: http://tinyurl.com/gsqzdz6 (~100W) http://tinyurl.com/z9c92fs Estimate to transfer 1Mb of data (average efficiency): http://tinyurl.com/jb2od4k Energy efficiency of internet: http://tinyurl.com/jq5hndm Broadband usage guide: http://tinyurl.com/gmezjkg


The Mystery Of Asparagus Pee
Apr 14 2016 3 mins  
Get a 2-meal discount from Blue Apron here: http://cook.ba/1W7fRdC The Survey Results: http://bit.ly/29boaUB If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like this blog post about asparagus pee: http://bit.ly/1TOEBHZ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Asparagus: a delicious, edible plant Odor: a smell, aroma Gas chromatography: a scientific technique used to separate and analyze compounds Sulfur: a yellow chemical element with the symbol S Asparagusic Acid: a sulfur containing compound present in asparagus People featured in this video: - Marcel Proust - Benjamin Franklin - John Arbuthnot ___________________________________________ Thanks to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Jagdtiger - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Rachel Becker (@RA_Becks) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Purple, white and green asparagus - iStock.com/PicturePartners Viceroy Butterfly - Wikimedia user PiccoloNamek https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Viceroy_Butterfly.jpg Eggs and Asparagus - Michelle Hooton (used with permission) https://www.flickr.com/photos/_hoot/8636916522 _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Eriksson, N., Macpherson, J. M., Tung, J. Y., Hon, L. S., Naughton, B., Saxonov, S., . . . Mountain, J. (2010). Web-Based, Participant-Driven Studies Yield Novel Genetic Associations for Common Traits. PLoS Genetics PLoS Genet, 6(6). Retrieved from http://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1000993 Mitchell, S. C. (2001). Food Idiosyncrasies: Beetroot and Asparagus. Drug Metabolism & Disposition, 29(4), 539-543. Retrieved from http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/29/4/539.full#ref-62 Mitchell, S. C., & Waring, R. H. (2014). Asparagusic acid. Phytochemistry, 97, 5-10. Retrieved from http://www.silae.it/files/Asparagusic acid.pdf Pelchat, M. L., Bykowski, C., Duke, F. F., & Reed, D. R. (2010). Excretion and Perception of a Characteristic Odor in Urine after Asparagus Ingestion: A Psychophysical and Genetic Study. Chemical Senses, 36(1), 9-17. Retrieved from http://chemse.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/09/27/chemse.bjq081.full.pdf Waring, R. H., Mitchell, S. C., & Fenwick, G. R. (1987). The chemical nature of the urinary odour produced by man after asparagus ingestion. Xenobiotica, 17(11), 1363-1371. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00498258709047166

Should We Contact Uncontacted Peoples?
Apr 08 2016 3 mins  
A big thank-you to our supporters on Patreon https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Maletendo Bezenga - Kapero - Zarko Obrenovic - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: Rohrlich, J. (2015). Should Society Start Contacting the Amazon's Uncontacted Tribes?. VICE News. https://goo.gl/b3hfmR Kluger, J. (2015). Is It Ethical to Leave Uncontacted Tribes Alone? Time Magazine. http://time.com/3909470/tribes-uncont... Survival International Q+A about “Uncontacted Tribes”: http://goo.gl/x9D9PB Glob, A. 2008. Are there ‘uncontacted tribes’? The short answer: No. Savage Minds Blog. http://goo.gl/ihWUyw FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - isolated peoples: peoples living without significant contact with global civilization, either by choice or circumstance - uncontacted peoples: another term for isolated peoples, even though most isolated peoples have actually been in some form of contact with global civilization - forest peoples: indigenous peoples who live in and depend on forests for their livelihoods - first contact: the first meeting of two cultures previously unaware of one another - controlled contact: a planned, organized first contact involving health care professionals and cultural translators - no-contact approach: a policy to leave isolated peoples alone - Prime Directive: a Star Trek guiding principle prohibiting Starfleet personnel from interfering with the internal development of alien civilizations - self-determination: the right of a people to freely choose their political, economic, social, and cultural systems without interference - autonomy: the right or condition of self-government and expression of aspirations free from external control or influence ___________________________________________ References: Feather, C. (2015). Isolated tribes: Contact misguided. Science (New York, NY), 349(6250), 798-798. http://goo.gl/BPL2RX Lawler, A. (2015). Making contact. Science, 348(6239), 1072-1079. http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Pringle, H. (2015). In peril. Science, 348(6239), 1080-1085. http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Walker, R. S., & Hill, K. R. (2015). Protecting isolated tribes. Science,348(6239), 1061-1061. http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Walker, R. S., & Hill, K. R. (2016). Personal communication. News Article about the Science magazine feature: http://goo.gl/rpIFyZ Articles about recent Brazil & Peru First Contacts: Fraser, B. (2014). Controversial Peru gas project expansion gets go-ahead. Thomson Reuters Foundation. http://goo.gl/J4d6zt Fraser, B. (2015). Isolated tribespeople receiving care after violent contact in Brazil. Science Magazine News. http://goo.gl/K6A01W Hill, D. (2014). Gas firm to move deeper into reserve for indigenous people in Peru. The Guardian. http://goo.gl/6JJDZ4 Nuwer, R. (2014). Anthropology: The sad truth about uncontacted tribes. BBC Future. http://goo.gl/nEkGLC Pringle, H. (2014). Uncontacted tribe in Brazil emerges from isolation. Science, 345(6193), 125-126. http://science.sciencemag.org/content... Pringle. H. (2014). Video of tribe's first contact shows both tension and friendly overtures. Science Magazine News. http://goo.gl/lH8WhA Tharoor, I. (2015). Do the world’s ‘uncontacted’ tribes deserve to be left alone? Washington Post. https://goo.gl/6Qeiyb



How Much Does Meat Actually Cost?
Mar 03 2016 3 mins  
Download a free audiobook when you sign up for a 30-day trial at http://www.audible.com/minuteearth Ending the battle between vegans, vegetarians, and everyone else | Brian Kateman TEDx: https://goo.gl/WzRRSY Why Are Vegetarians Annoying? | Hank Green: https://goo.gl/xRCI4n ___________________________________________ Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Maletendo Bezenga - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about this video's topic? Here are some keywords to get your googling started: Externality: a cost or benefit caused by an activity that affects other parties but is not taken into consideration (e.g. by being reflected in purchase prices) Hidden cost: a cost not included in the purchase price, such as additional expenses, opportunity costs, or externalities Social Cost: an expense to society that is the sum of the private costs paid by a firm or individual, and the externalities paid by other parties Reducetarianism: the practice of eating less meat (& dairy, eggs, & other animal products), which may be appealing because not everyone is able or willing to follow a completely meat-free diet. ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Alex Reich (twitter: @alexhreich) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (twitter:@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich (twitter: @MinutePhysics) and Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early access to all of our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References and Calculations: https://goo.gl/5B5ECv (Open it in a Text Editor or R Studio)



Which Fish Did We Evolve From?
Feb 10 2016 1 mins  
Today's oceans are full of fish with fins that couldn't evolve into limbs like ours. So, who are our ancestors and where did they go? If you're a fan of MinuteEarth but don't yet support us on Patreon, please check out our Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth A BIG thank you to our Patreon supporters, especially to: - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Viraansh Bhanushali - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: Lobe-finned Fishes, Ray-Finned fishes, Panderichthys, Late Devonian _________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Peter Reich Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich (@alexhreich), Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Henry Reich (@minutephysics) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subbed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: http://podcast.minuteearth.com/ ________________________ References: Clack, Jennifer. (2016). Personal Communication. Merck, John. GEOL 431 Vertebrate Paleobiology Lecture Notes, University of Maryland. Retrieved from https://www.geol.umd.edu/~jmerck/geol... McGhee, G. R. (2013). When the invasion of land failed: The legacy of the Devonian extinctions. Columbia University Press. Sallan, L. C., & Coates, M. I. (2010). End-Devonian extinction and a bottleneck in the early evolution of modern jawed vertebrates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(22), 10131-10135. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/107/22/10...


How Many Mass Extinctions Have There Been?
Jan 21 2016 3 mins  
Thanks to Audible for supporting this video. Get your free 30-day trial at https://www.audible.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: Today I Found Out, Maarten Bremer, Mark Roth, Jeff Straathof, Tony Fadell, Ahmed, Muhammad Shifaz, Vidhya Krishnaraj, Luka Leskovsek, Duhilio Patino, Alberto Bortoni, Valentin, Nicholas Buckendorf, and Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: – Mass Extinction Event: a significant, global decrease in the diversity of life – "Big 5": The five biggest mass extinction events since the Cambrian explosion of Life 550 million years ago – Biodiversity Crisis: Like a mass extinction, a biodiversity crisis is a marked depletion in diversity in the fossil record. Some scientists prefer to call the late-Devonian extinction a "biodiversity crisis" because a lack of speciation contributed to the loss in diversity just as much as extinction did. – Diversity curve: A line chart that shows the diversity of life (usually by genera, but sometimes by species or family) over time – Lagerstatte: a deposit of sedimentary rock that contains a profound number of fossils, often with excellent preservation – Shareholder Quorum Subsampling: A statistical method that corrects for some of the biases in the fossil record, allowing scientists to generate more accurate diversity curves ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (twitter:@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich (twitter:@minutephysics), Alex Reich (twitter:@alexhreich), Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Alroy, J. (2015). Personal Communication. Alroy, J. (2008). Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 11536-11542. Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artic... Alroy, J. (n.d.). Accurate and precise estimates of origination and extinction rates. Paleobiology, 40(3), 374-397. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from https://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/pdf... Benton, M. (2003). When life nearly died: The greatest mass extinction of all time. New York: Thames & Hudson. Barrett, Paul M. (2015). Personal Communication. Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database. http://fossilworks.org/?page=paleodb Lloyd, GT, Smith, AB and Young, JR, (2011). Quantifying the deep-sea rock and fossil record bias using coccolithophores. Geological Society Special Publication, 358 (1), 167-177. Mcghee, G., Clapham, M., Sheehan, P., Bottjer, D., & Droser, M. (2013). A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370, 260-270. Raup, D. (1979). Biases in the fossil record of species and genera. Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 13: 85–91. Raup, D., & Sepkoski, J. (1982). Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record. Science, 215(4539), 1501-1503. Vermeij, GJ. (2015). Personal Communication.

DemDebate Secret Video: What The U.S. Promised In Paris
Jan 19 2016 1 mins  
NBC & YouTube actually asked us to make TWO videos for the Democratic Presidential Debate on January 17th, 2016. Here’s the video that DIDN’T get shown at the debate. Our video that was shown: https://youtu.be/vbE5PSu-p0s Watch the whole debate: https://www.youtube.com/user/NBCNews Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Thanks to our amazing Patreon patrons for making this kind of special video possible! - Luka Leskovsek - Duhilio Patino - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur - Ahmed - Muhammad Shifaz - Tony Fadell - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords to get your googling started: COP21: The climate conference held in Paris in December 2015, at which the Paris Agreement was signed. It’s called COP21 because it was the 21st annual meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Paris Agreement: The voluntary agreement signed at COP21 between 196 world governments that sets the world on a path toward limiting human-caused climate change to well below 2°C. INDC: As part of the Paris Agreement, governments filed an INDC, or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, leading up to COP21. Most countries made a commitment to reduce their net greenhouse gas emissions by a set amount over the next decade. Clean Power Plan: The biggest contribution to U.S. emissions reductions over the next decade will come from the Clean Power Plan – a rule set out by President Obama in August 2015 that mandates emissions cuts for 48 U.S. states. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE): The CAFE program sets standards for the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks. President Obama set out new rules in 2015 that require cars to reach a fuel economy of 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (twitter:@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich (twitter:@minutephysics), Alex Reich (twitter:@alexhreich), Peter Reich, and Omkar Bhagat: (twitter:@TheCuriousEnggr) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ For exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: IPCC First Assessment Report. http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/1992%2... GD Banks. SUCCESS OF U.S. CLIMATE PLEDGE DEPENDS ON FUTURE GHG REGULATION OF U.S. INDUSTRY, OTHER SECTORS. ACCF CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH SPECIAL REPORT, NOVEMBER 2015 http://www.eenews.net/assets/2015/12/... U.S. INDC (Voluntary Commitment for Paris Agreement) http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/IN... Paris Agreement http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2015/... U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report: 1990-2013. EPA. http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghg...

America's Energy Future: MinuteEarth At The DemDebate
Jan 17 2016 4 mins  
YouTube and NBC invited us to make a video for the final Democratic Candidate’s Debate before the US Presidential primaries. Here’s our video (about climate change & energy), Lester Holt’s question, & the candidates’ responses. Like our video? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Watch the whole debate: https://www.youtube.com/user/NBCNews Thanks to our Patreon patrons for making this kind of video possible! - Vidhya Krishnaraj - Luka Leskovsek - Duhilio Patino - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur - Ahmed - Muhammad Shifaz - Tony Fadell - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about this video’s topic? Here are some keywords to get your googling started: climate change, global warming, alternative energy, renewable energy, fossil fuels ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (twitter:@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich (twitter:@minutephysics), Alex Reich (twitter:@alexhreich), Peter Reich, and Omkar Bhagat: (twitter:@TheCuriousEnggr) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ For exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n _________________________________________ References: Total US energy consumption by source in 2014 82% fossil fuels (petroleum 35%, coal 18%, natural gas 28%) 10% renewables (solar 0.4%, geothermal 0.2%, wind 1.8%, biofuels 5%, hydro 2.6%) 8% nuclear http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/in... http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm...


Why Do Rivers Have Deltas?
Dec 16 2015 2 mins  
Where rivers meet the ocean, coastlines tend to bend either inward or outward, creating estuaries and deltas. But how do they get those shapes? A huge thank-you to the following organizations, all working toward sustainable deltas, for sponsoring this video: the Belmont Forum, the Sustainable Deltas Initiative, the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics, the St Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota, and the DELTAS project. These organizations study deltas around the world, in particular how they’re threatened by human activities such as building dams, channelizing rivers, and climate change-induced sea-level rise. If we don’t pay attention, we might lose the landform that allowed us to become civilized in the first place. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Maarten Bremer - Tony Fadell - Antoine Coeur - Nicholas Buckendorf - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Muhammad Shifaz ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: – delta: the piled-up sediment (typically triangular, or greek-letter-delta-shaped) deposited by a river as it flows into a larger body of water – estuary: a partially enclosed body of brackish (part salt, part fresh) water that connects one or more ocean-bound streams/rivers to the open sea. Geologists classify estuaries into four basic types (bar-built, coastal plain/drowned river, tectonic, and fjord), based on the geologic processes that formed them. – ice age: this is a term that geologists use a little differently than non-scientists. Geologically speaking, an ice age is a fairly long period (~100-300 million years) of relatively cold temperatures on Earth. Within these long periods of time, the climate warms and cools lots of times, causing the ice sheets to retreat and advance; geologists refer to the colder time intervals as "glacials" and the warmer periods as "interglacials". We are currently in an "interglacial" phase (that started ~15,000 years ago) of an ice age that started ~2.6 million years ago, but because that's kind of complicated, we just say "the end of the last ice age" when what we really mean is "the end of the last 'glacial' cycle of the current ice age." – marine transgression / marine regression: on the surface, these are just fancy ways of talking about sea level going up and down. But for geologists, "transgression" and "regression" are more useful, because land sometimes goes up and down too. For example, if movement along a tectonic fault causes part of the coast to drop below sea level, it might get flooded, but it wouldn't be accurate to attribute the flooding to sea level rise. So geologists describe the situation as "marine transgression" instead. These terms comes in handy when we're talking about deltas and estuaries: deltas are formed by marine regression, and estuaries by marine transgression. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich (@alexhreich), Henry Reich (@minutephysics) and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Bhattacharya, J.P. (2003) Deltas and Estuaries, In: Middleton G.V. (editor) Encyclopedia of Sedimentology, Kluwer Academic 145-152. http://www.geosc.uh.edu/docs/geos/fac... Day, J., Gunn, J., Folan, W., Yáñez-Arancibia, A., & Horton, B. (2007). Emergence of complex societies after sea level stabilized. Eos Trans. AGU Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 88(15), 169-170. Giosan, L., Goodbred, S.L. (2006) Deltaic Environments. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. https://www.whoi.edu/science/GG/coast... Gupta, A. (2007). Large rivers: Geomorphology and management. Chichester, England: John Wiley. Russell, R.J. (1967) Aspects of Coastal Morphology. Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography 49: 299-309. (Abstract) http://www.jstor.org/stable/520896?se... Wright, L.D. (1977) Sediment transport and deposition at river mouths: A synthesis. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88:857-868.






How Risky Are Vaccines?
Oct 19 2015 3 mins  
Thanks to Lynda.com for sponsoring this video! Visit https://www.lynda.com/earth for a 10-day free trial Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here's a keyword to get your googling started: herd immunity: immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of a population provides protection for individuals who have not developed immunity ___________________________________________ Credits: Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (twitter:@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich (twitter:@alexhreich), Henry Reich (twitter:@minutephysics), Peter Reich and Ever Salazar (twitter:@eversalazar) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Alecca, J. (2015, March 31). Measles vaccinations jump after scare, public dialogue. Seattle Times. http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-n... Bohlke, K., Davis, R.L., Marcy, S. M., Braun, M. M., DeStefano, F., Black, S.B., Mullooly, J.P., Thompson, R.S. (2003). Risk of Anaphylaxis After Vaccination of Children and Adolescents, Pediatrics, 112, 815-820. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org... Center for Disease Control (2015, August 17). Vaccines and Immunizations: Possible Side-effects from Vaccines. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/s... Chapman University (2014). Social Reality Index. https://www.chapman.edu/wilkinson/_fi... Chen, R.T. (1999). Vaccine risks: real, perceived and unknown. Vaccine, 17, S41–S46. Kimmel, S. R. (2002). Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality. American Family Physician, 66, 2113–2120. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/1201/p21... National Safety Council (2015). Injury Facts. http://www.nsc.org/learn/safety-knowl... The University of Michigan C.S. Mott Children's Hospital (2015). National Poll on Children's Health: Safer, with More Benefits: Parents’ Vaccines Views Shifting, Volume 24 Issue 2. http://mottnpch.org/sites/default/fil...



Why Are There Dangerous Ingredients In Vaccines?
Jul 31 2015 2 mins  
Save $75 off a Leesa mattress by going to http://www.leesa.com/earth and using the code EARTH75 - http://www.leesa.com/earth Support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ... like these fantastic Patreon patrons. Thanks! - ThePoniesTurnabout - BurmansHealthShop - Owner - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: -adjuvant: substance added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response and increase the vaccine's efficacy -attenuation: altering a pathogen to make it less virulent (or even harmless) -acquired immunity: components of the immune system that are developed via exposure to pathogens or other sources of infection ________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Subscribe on YouTube to see our new videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteear... Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/68917745... And here we are on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2008). Toxicological profile for Aluminum. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/... Center for Disease Control (1993). Understanding how vaccines work. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patie... Keith, L.S., Jones, D.E., Chou, C.H. (2002). Aluminum toxicokinetics regarding infant diet and vaccinations. Vaccine 20(Sppl. 3):513-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12... Mitkus, R.J., King, D.B., Hess M,A., Forshee, R.A., Walderhaug, M.O. (2011). Updated aluminum pharmacokinetics following infant exposures through diet and vaccination. Vaccine 29(51):9538-9543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2... Petrovsky, N., Aguilar J.C. (2004). Vaccine adjuvants: current state and future trends. Immunology and Cell Biology 82:482–496. http://www.nature.com/icb/journal/v82... Sullivan, J.B. and Krieger, G.R., (Eds.) (2001). Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. 2nd Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Thaysen-Andersen, M., Jorgensen, S.B., Wilhelmsen, E.S. et al. (2007). Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin. Vaccine 25:2213-2227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2... Unicef (1996). The Progress of Nations: Health. "Vaccines bring 7 diseases under control." http://www.unicef.org/pon96/hevaccin.htm

Do We Have to Get Old and Die?
Jun 29 2015 2 mins  
We’d like to thank Focus Features for sponsoring this video – and for inviting us to pre-screen their summer 2015 film “Self/Less”. It’s a sci-fi flick that explores memory, consciousness, and immortality, and it made us think about the types of immortality that already exist here on Earth. A big thanks to Focus Features for supporting MinuteEarth! http://www.focusfeatures.com/selfless Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Maarten Bremer - Mark - BurmansHealthShop - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur YOU can also support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: – negligible senescence: not showing signs of age-related progression – biological immortality: having a mortality rate that does not increase with increasing age ________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteear... And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/68917745... And here we are on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Aubert, G. & Lansdorp, P. M. (2008) Telomeres and aging. Physiological Review 88(2): 557–579. http://simonadellemonache.com/dispens... Bavestrello, G. Sommer, C., and Sará, M. 1992. Bi-directional conversion in Turritopsis nutricula. In Aspects of Hydrozoan Biology. (J. Bouillon et al., editors). Scientia Marina 56 (2-3): 137-140. http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/pdf/56/... Buffenstein R. (2008) Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole rat: Insights from a successfully aging species. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 178: 439-445. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1... Finch, C.E. (1998) Variations in senescence and longevity include the possibility of negligible senescence. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 53A(4): B235–239. http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjourna... Piraino, S., Boero, F., Aeschbach, B., Schmid, V. (1996) Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Biological Bulletin 190: 302-312. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/F... Tian, X., Azpurua, J., Hine, C., Vaidya, A., Myakishev-Rempel, M., Ablaeva, J., Mao, Z., Nevo, E., Gorbunova, V., & Seluanov, A. (2013) High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat. Nature 499: 346–349. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/... Image Credits: Nake Mole Rat - Buffenstein/Barshop Institute/UTHSCSA https://www.flickr.com/photos/jedimen... Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz, Wien https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Na... Chipmunk - Gilles Gonthier https://www.flickr.com/photos/gillesg... Capybara - Karoly Lorentey https://www.flickr.com/photos/lorente...

Is Climate Change Just A Lot Of Hot Air?
Jun 18 2015 2 mins  
Check out http://www.lynda.com/minuteearth for 10 days of free online courses - http://www.lynda.com/ Illustrations by: Jesse Agar - https://www.youtube.com/user/ThisPlac... Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteear... ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: - extreme weather – Conditions and events that occur with low frequency, but which often have significant impact on people and nature; e.g., heat waves, droughts, heavy downpours, floods, blizzards, windstorms, hurricanes - ocean heat content – the energy stored as heat in the ocean - evapotranspiration – the movement of water vapor from land, water, plant, or animal surface into the atmosphere, driven by the drying power of the air ________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/68917745... And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n And Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth And Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Church, J. A., N. J. White, L. F. Konikow, C. M. Domingues, J. G. Cogley, E. Rignot, J. M. Gregory, M. R. van den Broeke, A. J. Monaghan, and I. Velicogna (2011), Revisiting the Earth's sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18601, doi:10.1029/2011GL048794. Diffenbaugh, N. S., Swain D. L. & Touma, D. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California. PNAS, doi 10.1073/pnas.1422385112 (2015). Published online. EPA. Climate Change Indicators in the United States: Sea Surface Temperature www.epa.gov/climatechange/indicators - Updated May 2014 Gouretski, V., J. Kennedy, T. Boyer, and A. Köhl (2012), Consistent near-surface ocean warming since 1900 in two largely independent observing networks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19606, doi:10.1029/2012GL052975. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): Climate change 2013: The Physical science basis. Fifth Assessment report of the IPCC [Stocker, T. F. et al. eds)]. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1535 pp. (2013). NOAA (NCEI). Global Ocean Heat and Salt Content. https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT... Trenberth, K. E. Framing the way to relate climate extremes to climate change. Climatic Change, 115, 283-290, doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0441-5 (2012). Trenberth, K. E., Dai, A., van der Schrier, G., Jones, P. D., Barichivich, J., Briffa, K. R. & Sheffield, J. Global warming and changes in drought. Nature Climate Change, 4, 17-22, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2067 (2014). Trenberth, K. E., JTFasullo, TG Shepherd. Attribution of climate extreme events. Nature Climate Change (in review). Trenberth, K.E. (personal communication). U.S. Global Change Research Program. 2014 National Climate Assessment. http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/highl...




Rain's Dirty Little Secret
May 08 2015 2 mins  
Check out http://www.lynda.com/minuteearth for 10 days of free online courses. Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - AshrafDude - Nasser Hamed Alminji - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Emil Kampp - Today I Found Out - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Subscribe to see all our new videos! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/68917745... And YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteear... And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: - Condensation – the process of water molecules glomming together into visible droplets - Condensation nuclei – tiny solid particles that water vapor condenses onto (also called aerosols) - Homogenous condensation – condensation without any kind of condensation nuclei - Dew point – the temperature below which water vapor starts to condense into droplets - Heterogenous condensation – condensation that happens with the help of condensation nuclei - Critical Embryo – a cluster of water molecules big enough to easily gain more molecules - Cloud chamber – a cool thing to check out if you want to build a particle detector at home (it involves pumping a bunch of water vapor into pure air; when a particle passes through, it leaves a streak of ionized water molecules that, in super-saturated air, can act as condensation nuclei!) __________________ References: Knupp, K. Surface Thermodynamics and Nucleation of Water Droplets and Ice Crystals. Lecture Notes. Retrieved March 2015 from: http://vortex.nsstc.uah.edu/mips/pers... McDonald, JE (1962) Homogenous Nucleation of Vapor Condensation. I. Thermodynamic Aspects. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. McDonald, JE (1962) Homogenous Nucleation of Vapor Condensation. II. Kinetic Aspects. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. __________________________________________________________________ Image Credits: Dewdrops - David Saddler https://www.flickr.com/photos/8050245...






























How do Trees Survive Winter?
Jan 27 2014 2 mins  
Please support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd This video sponsored by: http://www.youtube.com/TheNilFacts And thanks to Subbable supporter Raed Massoud for helping make MinuteEarth possible! Humans can go inside or put on clothes, but trees spend winter naked in the cold. Why don't they all die? Created by Henry Reich Animation: Ever Salazar Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Want to add captions to MinuteEarth videos? - minuteearth.subtitl.us MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! References Cavender-Bares, J. (2005). Impacts of freezing on long distance transport in woody plants. Vascular transport in plants, 401-424. Davis, S. D., Sperry, J. S., & Hacke, U. G. (1999). The relationship between xylem conduit diameter and cavitation caused by freezing. American Journal of Botany, 86(10), 1367-1372. Ewers, F. W. (1985). Xylem structure and water conduction in conifer trees, dicot trees, and lianas. International Association of Wood Anatomists Bulletin,6(4). Pittermann, J., & Sperry, J. S. (2006). Analysis of freeze-thaw embolism in conifers. The interaction between cavitation pressure and tracheid size. Plant Physiology, 140(1), 374-382. Willson, C. J., & Jackson, R. B. (2006). Xylem cavitation caused by drought and freezing stress in four co‐occurring Juniperus species. Physiologia Plantarum, 127(3), 374-382. Zanne, A. E., Tank, D. C., Cornwell, W. K., Eastman, J. M., Smith, S. A., FitzJohn, R. G., ... & Beaulieu, J. M. (2013). Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. Nature.



































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